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Chapter 12 – Alcohol and Tobacco

Heart disease progression of atherosclerosis among

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Unformatted text preview: o drive after drinking o more likely to use other substances (nicotine, drugs) Tobacco & Its Effects • tobacco directly affects the brain • primary active ingredient: nicotine • tobacco smoke contains 400 other components and chemicals How Nicotine Works • nicotine: colourless, oily compound, poisonous is concentrated amounts • dangerous, addictive drug • stimulates cerebral cortex (outer layer of brain) that controls complex behaviour and mental activity & enhances mood and alertness • also acts as sedative • regular smoker: nicotine stimulate you at first, then tranquilize you • shallow puffs: increase alertness – low doses of nicotine facilitate release of neurotransmitter acetylcholine – makes smoker feel alert • deep drags: relax smoker – high doses of nicotine block flow of acetylcholine • stimulates adrenal glands – produce adrenaline – increases blood pressure, speeds up heart rate (15- 20 bpm), constricts blood vessels (esp. in skin) • inhibits formation of urine, dampens hunger, irritates membranes in mouth and throat, dulls taste buds • major contributor to heart and respiratory disease Tar & Carbon Monoxide • tobacco produces tar – thick, sticky dark fluid made up of several hundred chemicals – many poisonous, some carcinogenic • inhale tobacco smoke – tar and other particles settled in forks of bronchial tubes in lungs (where precancerous changes apt to occur) • tar and smoke damage mucus and cilia in bronchial tubes • smoke also contains carbon monoxide – interferes with ability of hemoglobin in blood to carry oxygen, impairs normal functioning of nervous system, partly responsible for increased risk of heart attacks and strokes in smokers Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking • smokers die nearly seven years earlier than nonsmokers • smokers get more wrinkles • 10 times more likely to develop lung cancer • 20 times more...
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