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Vol Lecture Notes 8

9 subsequent research both subareal and submarine

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Unformatted text preview: most show lack of layer and poor sorting characteristic of ? Pyroclastic flows Rare facies show better sorting and cross bedding characteristic of ? Pyroclastic surges Paleomagnetic studies show the submarine pumice has oriented remnant magnetism, requiring emplacement at temperatures above 500˚C. Mandeville et al (1994) concluded that the basal parts of pyroclastic flows entered the sea with sufficient coeherence to produce the tsunamis. Nomanbhoy and Satake (1995) concluded all 3 possibilities could displace enough water to produce the tsnumais, but the explosion best fits wave forms and wave heights. Subsequent Research Carey et al. (1995) concluded that “The distal deposits…[were] derived from the upper part of gravitationally segregated pyroclastic flows. Energetic flows spread out away from the volcano at speeds in excess of 100 km/h and traveled up to 80 km from source. At the distal edge of this area the flows were relatively dilute and turbulent, yet carried enough material to deposit several tens of centimeters of tephra. The great mobility of the Krakatau flows from the 10 a.m. activity may be the r...
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