Vol Lecture Notes 2

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Unformatted text preview: commonly announces a new eruption or eruptive phase in Hawaii, when comparatively undegassed magma arrives at the surface. Subsequent phases show much smaller fountains or none at all. Gas disrupts magma into “clots” Ratio of clot:gas was 1:70 in Pu’u O’o Typically produces Scoria Cones Unsolidified clots may coalesce to form flows. Hawaiian Fountaining of Etna 3 Stromboli, Eolian Islands, Italy Strombolian Eruption Style 4 Strombolian Eruptions Strombolian style refers to discontinuous individual explosions repeated at intervals of a few per minute to a few per hour. Gas:clot ratio 105:1 10-2 m3 to 102 m3 erupted/explosion Muzzle velocities <100m/s Results from single large bubble reaching the surface and bursting Strombolian Eruption of Etna 5 Vulcano, Eolian Islands, Italy Vulcanian Eruption Style 6 Vulcanian Eruptions Discrete, very violent explosions Capable of ejecting enormous blocks and generating atmospheric shock waves Muzzle velocities ≤ 400 m/s (supersonic) Speeds suggest 100x overpressure May produce ash clouds and pyroclastic flows High proportion of nonjuvenile material in ejecta. Sakura-jima, Japan Vulcanian Explosions...
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This document was uploaded on 03/04/2014 for the course EAS 458 at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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