Lecture 3 - Nervous System

Learning its like riding a bicycle how do you remember

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Unformatted text preview: on Synapses 29 Classifica4on of NeurotransmiOers •  Posi4ve change in membrane poten4al –  Make it easier for ac4on poten4al to occur –  Opening of Na+ ­selec4ve ­gated channels –  Acetylcholine and glutamate •  Nega4ve change in membrane poten4al –  Make it harder for ac4on poten4al to occur –  Opening of Cl ­ ­ or K+ ­selec4ve ­gated channels –  Glycine and GABA 30 Examples of neurotransmiOers •  Acetylcholine •  Biogenic amines (e.g. dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine) •  Amino acids or derivates (e.g. glutamate, glycine or GABA) •  Neuropep4des (e.g. oxytocin or endorphins) •  Gaseous molecules (e.g. nitrous oxide or CO2) 31 Post ­synap4c Receptors •  Ionotropic Receptor – ion channels, instantaneous change in membrane poten4al Extracellular environment Cytosol •  Metabotropic Receptor – Induced signal cascade that secondarily lead changes in ion channels Extracellular environment Cytosol G ­protein binding receptor 32 •  BREAK! How neuron connec4ons confer func4on? •  Can we correlate specific areas in the brain with mental processes? •  Can we tell which areas in the brain are important for memory? 34 Vertebrates Nervous System •  Peripheral Nervous System –  Sensory and motor neurons –  Send signal to the CNS •  Central Nervous System (CNS) –  Brain, main nerve cord and centralized ganglia 35 Vertebrates Nervous System •  Voluntary –  Conscious –  Sensing and responding to external s4muli –  Soma4c (in vertebrates) – composed of sensory and motor neurons •  Involuntary –  Unconscious –  Regula4on of internal func4ons –  Autonomic (in vertebrates) 36 Reflex Arc •  Quick and automa4c response •  LiOle or no interpreta4on from interneurons, signal almost direct from sensory neuron to motor neuron 37 Memory and learning “It’s like riding a bicycle” •  How do you remember what was just on the previous slide? •  How do you remember what we ate for breakfast today? •  Why can’t we remember what we ate 37 days ago? •  How we can remember specific situa4ons? Our memories, what we...
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