Lecture 5 - Motor Mechanism

Rigid skeleton in the external area of the animal

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Unformatted text preview: ody cavity –  Adjust shape by regula4ng the amount of liquid in the body cavity and hydrosta4c pressure to move 6 Hydrosta4c skeleton •  Earthworms move forward by passing a wave of muscular contrac4ons •  In jellyfish skeleton is a jet ­propelled locomo4on 7 Hydrosta4c skeleton •  In vertebrates, hydrosta4c elements work for flexibility and cushioning 8 Exoskeleton •  Rigid skeleton in the external area of the animal –  Protects the sod 4ssues –  Limit growth •  Calcium carbonate exoskeleton –  Mollusks (e.g. clams and mussels) –  Reinforced by proteins –  Difficult to break –  The acid rain problem! 9 Exoskeleton  ­ Chi4n •  Chi4n –  Arthropods –  Nitrogen ­containing polysaccharide –  Segmenta4on allows movement –  Animal can grow un4l cu4cle hardens; then must shed to grow (mol4ng) –  Cannot be repaired 10 Endoskeleton •  Internal structure •  Only protect internal organs •  Can be repaired •  Sponges, echinoderms and vertebrates 11 Endoskeleton •  Starfish –  Honeycombed structures made of calcite microcrystals arranged in a lahce (ossicles) 12 Endoskeleton  ­ Vertebrates •  Bones are hard structures that serve for muscle to be ajached •  Tendons connect muscle with the skeleton •  Two regions: –  Axial – main longitudinal axis (Bones in the head, spinal cord and ribs) –  Appendicular – limb bones and girdles 13 Vertebrate skeleton –  Tooth enamel –  Car4lage –  Bone 14 Vertebrate skeleton  ­ Bone –  Bone •  Dynamic 4ssue •  Organic component: –  Osteoblasts – bone ­4ssue forming cells by combining calcium phosphate, mineral crystals and collagen –  osteoclasts – break down bone and collagen •  Mineral components: Ca2+, PO43 ­ and other ions •  Depending on the rate you are in a process of bone growth or bone shin 15 Role of colas in bone density Ingredients: •  Carbonated water •  Sugar • ...
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