Lecture 4 - Sensory Mechanisms-Updated

Lecture 4 - Sensory Mechanisms-Updated - BIOS E1B...

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Lecture’4:’ Sensory’Mechanisms BIOS E-1B Introduc6on’to’Organismic’and’Evolu6onary’Biology’ February’5,’2014’ Reading :’ Chapter’3±’ 1’
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Learning’Goals’and’objec6ves’ Goal:’to’understand’the’molecular’mechanisms’by’which’each’type’of’ sensory’receptor’confers’its’func6on’ Outline’how’a’cell’recognizes’diFerent’types’of’s6muli’(strong,’so±,’ constant,’etc.)’ Describe’how’hair’cells’can’be’used’for’balance,’orienta6on’and’ audi6on’ Outline’the’mechanism’by’which’the’auditory’system’is’able’to’ diFeren6ate’between’high’and’low’pitch’ Predict’what’type’of’s6muli’will’ac6vate’a’speci²c’sensory’receptor’ Iden6fy’the’major’characteris6cs’that’diFeren6ate’the’ electromagne6c’receptors’found’in’the’visual’cortex’and’how’these’ diFerences’confer’their’func6on’ Compare’and’contrast’Cone’and’Rod’cells’and’how’speci²c’ muta6ons’aFect’vision’ Outline’diFerent’behavioral’aspects’that’pheromones’aFect’and’ what’evidence’there’is’of’its’existence’in’humans’ 2’
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Sensory’System’ Respond’to’changes’in’environmental’cues’ Five’“tradi6onal”’senses:’ Touch,’Smell,’Taste,’Hearing’and’Vision’ 3’
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Sensory’Mechanisms’ The’nervous’system’controls’the’flight’versus’fght’ response’ How’the’nervous’system’is’able’to’respond’to’the’ environment?’ 4’
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Sensory’receptor’ Specialized’sensory’neurons’ that’detect’a’par6cular’ s6muli’–’not’only’the’ receptors’ When’response’is’strong’ enough’an’ac6on’poten6al’is’ sent’to’CNS’ 5’
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Strong’ vs’weak’s6mulus’ Strength’of’the’s6mulus’is’indicated’by’the’frequency’ of’ac6on’poten6als’sent’to’the’CNS’(Fring’rates)’ ±’
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Adapta6on’ AOer’a’while’receptors’can’be’desensi6zed’ 7’
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Types’of’Sensory’receptors’ Mechanoreceptors’ Thermoreceptors’ Nociceptors’(pain’receptors)’ Electromagne6c’receptors’ Photoreceptors’ Chemoreceptors’ Electroreceptors’ 8’
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Mechanorecep6on’ Mechanical’energy’ Detects’deforma6on’of’membrane’ produced’by’touch,’stretch,’pressure,’ mo6on,’and’sound’ S6muli’open’ion’channels’in’the’plasma’ membrane,’which’depolarizes’the’cell’ Mechanoreceptor’can’be’a’neuron’or’a’ specialized’epithelial’cell’ 9’
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Mechanorecep6on’ Stretch’receptors’ Commonly’found’in’the’walls’of’organs’that’can’be’ distended’ Stretching’in’stomach’is’interpreted’as’fullness’
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Lecture 4 - Sensory Mechanisms-Updated - BIOS E1B...

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