Lecture 7 - Nutrition and the digestion system

Regulaon ectoderm obtain most of their heat from

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Unformatted text preview:  pyruvate  lac,c acid –  Anaerobic: •  Condi,on with low oxygen or no oxygen •  Forms 2 molecules of ATP from 1 molecule of glucose –  Aerobic: •  Condi,on with oxygen •  Glucose  pyruvate  citric cycle •  Forms 32 molecules of ATP from 1 molecule of glucose 8 Acquisi,on of energy •  Heat is a by ­product –  Endoderm: Obtain most of their heat from metabolism •  Temperature regula,on –  Ectoderm: Obtain most of their heat from environment 9 Acquisi,on of energy  ­ endoderm 10 Acquisi,on of energy  ­ ectoderm 11 Energy storage •  Carbohydrates –  Stored in liver and muscle as glycogen •  Fat –  Adipose ,ssue –  Higher energy value than glycogen –  Stored with liale water associa,on (more compact) 12 What do animals acquire from food? •  Inorganic nutrients –  Water –  Minerals •  Organic nutrients –  Carbohydrates –  Proteins –  Lipids –  Nucleic acids –  Vitamins –  We don’t use most organic nutrients as they are •  Macromolecules get absorbed by the gut in their cons,tuent monomers 13 What do animals acquire from food? •  Acetyl groups Acetyl ­ –  Building block of larger organic molecules that animals cannot produce •  Essen,al faay acids –  Some faay acids cannot be synthesize from acetyl groups (e.g. linoleic acid in humans – Fish and adipose ,ssue of birds and mammals) 14 What do animals acquire from food? •  Mineral elements –  Ca2+  ­ important for bone and teeth, muscle contrac,on, neuronal func,on, etc. –  Iron – hemoglobin –  Some animal lick stones to obtain minerals they need 15 What do animals acquire from food? •  Essen,al amino acids –  The capacity to produce certain amino acids varies among species –  Carnivorous tend to have higher essen,al amino acids requirements than herbivorous –  Humans: isoleucine, le...
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