Unformatted text preview: er 1 Introduction
1.1 Motivation In general, companies have two broad motivations for increasing their energy efficiency, defined as
the volume of energy consumed per unit (or per dollar value): reducing cost in internal operations
and external strategic considerations. 1.1.1 Reducing cost in internal operations The energy costs for industrial operations in the United States are large and growing. In 2010, the
industrial sector consumed 29.9 quadrillion BTUs of energy, or 32% of all energy in the United States,
more than any other sector. Consumption in this sector is expected to rise to 34.7 quadrillion
BTUs by 2020, or about 0.5% per year. Current industrial energy costs depend on the source, as
shown in Figure 1-1, with oil and electricity costing significantly more per BTU than coal or natural
gas. In terms of percentage of overall industry-wide BTUs, natural gas is the most heavily used
energy source, followed by electricity, oil and coal.
Energy costs vary widely across industries in terms of the proportion of...
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- Spring '14
- Energy Policy, ........., Energy development