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Unformatted text preview: costs attributable to
support and process functions as well as energy intensity. Industrial energy support systems consist
of steam systems, motor systems (i.e. pumps, fans, and air compressors) and building infrastrueture (i.e. lighting and Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)). Processes include all specialized manufacturing processes including industrial heating and cooling, machine drive, electrochemical processes, and office and workbench equipment. Over all industries, two-thirds of energy
is consumed by processes, while one-third is consumed by support systems, though this ratio varies
significantly by industry[3, 11].1 From an energy intensity perspective, figures range from 52.3 BTUs
'Although energy consumed by support systems may contribute more to fixed costs, and energy consumed by
processes may contribute more to variable costs, most manufacturing companies allocate all energy use, and its $25.00 $20.00 $15.00 $10.00 $5.00 oil Electricity Coal Natural Gas Figure 1-1: Average energy prices by source for industrial customers in 2010.
per dollar of value added in cement production to 0.4 BTUs per dollar of value a...
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This document was uploaded on 03/03/2014 for the course ADMIN 1 at Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
- Spring '14