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Real-time feedback to operators in a manufacturing setting can come in many forms, for numerous
types of processes, and has been described using a variety of terminologies (visual factory, visual
indicators, shop floor visualization etc.)[6, 7]. The working definition of real-time feedback used in this setting is the visual display of process-relevant data which continuously updates and can
be viewed by operators who interact and control the system being monitored at any time. Under
that definition, real-time feedback systems need not be technologically complex or involve advanced
IT or analytics; temperature control charts for industrial ovens can be considered a good real-time
feedback system, as can a car odometer.
An advantage of real-time feedback on electricity usage is that electricity waste is largely a
"hidden" waste. As a previous study in this facility noted, "unlike traditional forms of manufacturing
wastes, like inventory and defective parts, an employee cannot see kilowatt-hours pile up next to a
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- Spring '14