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Unformatted text preview: ntury saw the death of many empires- major empires that failed; Russian, austro- hungarian, ottoman, german, Japanese, soviet//// colonial: Spanish, British, French, Portuguese (only came down in 1874) Reasons for Failure: militarily- very viable- ottoman empire was a military machine- building slave armies- entire ottoman military system based on genecaries- they were christain children taken from families in an annual recruitment campaign- agents of sultan going to bosnia, Serbia etc- each village had to fulfill a quota- processions of young boys towards Istanbul- genecaries- could rise up in military- slaves rose up- but, you couldn’t marry, have kids or pass down property- so their lives were all about the sultan- loyalty total and unconditional=- this formula worked like crazy- all of Europe conquered- temp equil was knocked off- human nature seeped through- got around rules- in end, loyalty changed- slave armies- ancient idea- all outdone by chinese emperors- found out solution- they wont have kids if cant- the eunich- “fixed” the soldiers- but infection could set in- a few weeks to figure out if success- made fortune in family- adopted by family to bring them pride- had thousands of eunichs- the ultimate loyal force- they dnot have lives- no parochial interests- is power stronger than sex? Drive for power produced the same effect- the effective org of political power weakened 1. formed by external conquest, internally weak- ottomans never governed much, just want to raise taxes- didn’t care about changing religion, language etc- just want taxes- not able to generate growth and compete with west- as decays, corruption creeps in, “low reach” states 2. undone by the “rise of nations”- the politics of national identity 3. “performance failure”- a major cause- both among the subjects and their rulers- corruprion- from decay patrimonialism- corruption in king’s helpers Attempts at Survival: create an imperial nationalism- based on ruling people- turkification, russification, magyarization- but created backlash from the people left out by this- backlash against nationalism divide and rule- identify common enemies- roman expert at this- turn Bulgarians against greeks- everyone against jews (in Russian empire)- Hungarians vs Austrians- they would fight each other and not you- nurture a commonwealth perspective- offer cultural autonomy or superiority- promote the advantaged of large size etc- british commonwealth, French cultural identity- Russian literature case of Russian/Soviet empire most amazing- how communists were able to take Russian empire and in wake of dest of WW1, they managed to create the prism...
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