Unformatted text preview: is process, the compounds
are separated based on their solubilities into two immiscible liquids such as water and chloroform.
Since caffeine dissolves in chloroform, two immiscible liquids have appeared namely, the chloroform
layer and the aqueous layer. Since they are immiscible they can be easily separated by letting the
aqueous layer out of the separatory funnel. After adding additional amount of chloroform, more
aqueous layer was formed and separated. With shaking and swirling of the separatory funnel, bubbles
appeared. These are called emulsions. An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible liquids. When
tannins are converted to their salts, they become an ionic surfactant. These causes the materials that don¶t dissolve in water to form an emulsion with water. This emulsion can be minimized by careful
handling and swirling of the separatory funnel. Sodium sulphate was also added in order to remove
traces of water left with the chloroform layer.
To separate caffeine from chloroform, distillation was done. Their differences in volatility and
boiling points made them easy to separate by simple distillation. Chloroform has a boiling point of 60°
C which is lower than caffeine. The solution started to boil vigorously within 54° C and constantly
boiled at 60° C for several minutes...
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