Glossary_ The Integumentary System _ Anatomy and Physiology I.pdf

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Unformatted text preview: 11/3/2020 Glossary: The Integumentary System | Anatomy and Physiology I Anatomy and Physiology I Module 6: The Integumentary System Glossary: The Integumentary System 1/8 11/3/2020 Glossary: The Integumentary System | Anatomy and Physiology I acne: skin condition due to infected sebaceous glands albinism: genetic disorder that a ects the skin, in which there is no melanin production anagen: active phase of the hair growth cycle apocrine sweat gland: type of sweat gland that is associated with hair follicles in the armpits and genital regions arrector pili: smooth muscle that is activated in response to external stimuli that pull on hair follicles and make the hair “stand up” basal cell carcinoma: cancer that originates from basal cells in the epidermis of the skin basal cell: type of stem cell found in the stratum basale and in the hair matrix that continually undergoes cell division, producing the keratinocytes of the epidermis bedsore: sore on the skin that develops when regions of the body start necrotizing due to constant pressure and lack of blood supply; also called decubitis ulcers callus: thickened area of skin that arises due to constant abrasion catagen: transitional phase marking the end of the anagen phase of the hair growth cycle corn: type of callus that is named for its shape and the elliptical motion of the abrasive force cortex: in hair, the second or middle layer of keratinocytes originating from the hair matrix, as seen in a cross-section of the hair bulb cuticle: in hair, the outermost layer of keratinocytes originating from the 2/8 11/3/2020 Glossary: The Integumentary System | Anatomy and Physiology I hair matrix, as seen in a cross-section of the hair bulb dermal papilla: (plural = dermal papillae) extension of the papillary layer of the dermis that increases surface contact between the epidermis and dermis dermis: layer of skin between the epidermis and hypodermis, composed mainly of connective tissue and containing blood vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands, and other structures desmosome: structure that forms an impermeable junction between cells eccrine sweat gland: type of sweat gland that is common throughout the skin surface; it produces a hypotonic sweat for thermoregulation eczema: skin condition due to an allergic reaction, which resembles a rash elastin bers: bers made of the protein elastin that increase the elasticity of the dermis eleiden: clear protein-bound lipid found in the stratum lucidum that is derived from keratohyalin and helps to prevent water loss epidermis: outermost tissue layer of the skin eponychium: nail fold that meets the proximal end of the nail body, also called the cuticle external root sheath: outer layer of the hair follicle that is an extension of the epidermis, which encloses the hair root rst-degree burn: super cial burn that injures only the epidermis fourth-degree burn: burn in which full thickness of the skin and 3/8 11/3/2020 Glossary: The Integumentary System | Anatomy and Physiology I underlying muscle and bone is damaged glassy membrane: layer of connective tissue that surrounds the base of the hair follicle, connecting it to the dermis hair bulb: structure at the base of the hair root that surrounds the dermal papilla hair follicle: cavity or sac from which hair originates hair matrix: layer of basal cells from which a strand of hair grows hair papilla: mass of connective tissue, blood capillaries, and nerve endings at the base of the hair follicle hair root: part of hair that is below the epidermis anchored to the follicle hair shaft: part of hair that is above the epidermis but is not anchored to the follicle hair: keratinous lament growing out of the epidermis hypodermis: connective tissue connecting the integument to the underlying bone and muscle hyponychium: thickened layer of stratum corneum that lies below the free edge of the nail integumentary system: skin and its accessory structures internal root sheath: innermost layer of keratinocytes in the hair follicle that surround the hair root up to the hair shaft keloid: type of scar that has layers raised above the skin surface 4/8 11/3/2020 Glossary: The Integumentary System | Anatomy and Physiology I keratin: type of structural protein that gives skin, hair, and nails its hard, water-resistant properties keratinocyte: cell that produces keratin and is the most predominant type of cell found in the epidermis keratohyalin: granulated protein found in the stratum granulosum Langerhans cell: specialized dendritic cell found in the stratum spinosum that functions as a macrophage lunula: basal part of the nail body that consists of a crescent-shaped layer of thick epithelium Meissner corpuscle: (also, tactile corpuscle) receptor in the skin that responds to light touch Merkel cell: receptor cell in the stratum basale of the epidermis that responds to the sense of touch medulla: in hair, the innermost layer of keratinocytes originating from the hair matrix melanin: pigment that determines the color of hair and skin melanocyte: cell found in the stratum basale of the epidermis that produces the pigment melanin melanoma: type of skin cancer that originates from the melanocytes of the skin melanosome: intercellular vesicle that transfers melanin from melanocytes into keratinocytes of the epidermis metastasis: spread of cancer cells from a source to other parts of the body 5/8 11/3/2020 Glossary: The Integumentary System | Anatomy and Physiology I nail bed: layer of epidermis upon which the nail body forms nail body: main keratinous plate that forms the nail nail cuticle: fold of epithelium that extends over the nail bed, also called the eponychium nail fold: fold of epithelium at that extend over the sides of the nail body, holding it in place nail root: part of the nail that is lodged deep in the epidermis from which the nail grows Pacinian corpuscle: (also, lamellated corpuscle) receptor in the skin that responds to vibration papillary layer: super cial layer of the dermis, made of loose, areolar connective tissue reticular layer: deeper layer of the dermis; it has a reticulated appearance due to the presence of abundant collagen and elastin bers rickets: disease in children caused by vitamin D de ciency, which leads to the weakening of bones scar: collagen-rich skin formed after the process of wound healing that is di erent from normal skin sebaceous gland: type of oil gland found in the dermis all over the body and helps to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair by secreting sebum sebum: oily substance that is composed of a mixture of lipids that lubricates the skin and hair second-degree burn: partial-thickness burn that injures the epidermis 6/8 11/3/2020 Glossary: The Integumentary System | Anatomy and Physiology I and a portion of the dermis squamous cell carcinoma: type of skin cancer that originates from the stratum spinosum of the epidermis stratum basale: deepest layer of the epidermis, made of epidermal stem cells stratum corneum: most super cial layer of the epidermis stratum granulosum: layer of the epidermis super cial to the stratum spinosum stratum lucidum: layer of the epidermis between the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum, found only in thick skin covering the palms, soles of the feet, and digits stratum spinosum: layer of the epidermis super cial to the stratum basale, characterized by the presence of desmosomes stretch mark: mark formed on the skin due to a sudden growth spurt and expansion of the dermis beyond its elastic limits sudoriferous gland: sweat gland telogen: resting phase of the hair growth cycle initiated with catagen and terminated by the beginning of a new anagen phase of hair growth third-degree burn: burn that penetrates and destroys the full thickness of the skin (epidermis and dermis) vitamin D: compound that aids absorption of calcium and phosphates in the intestine to improve bone health vitiligo: skin condition in which melanocytes in certain areas lose the 7/8 11/3/2020 Glossary: The Integumentary System | Anatomy and Physiology I ability to produce melanin, possibly due an autoimmune reaction that leads to loss of color in patches Previous Next 8/8 ...
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