Biology 1 Exam 1 Study Guide

Know the specifics and involvement of interactions

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Unformatted text preview: gical macromolecules and which three are polymers of monomers bound together as a result of dehydration (condensations) reactions catalyzed by enzymes called polymerases? Biological polymers are broken down to monomers by hydrolysis catalyzed by hydrolase enzymes. Carbohydrates are composed of (CH2O)n , and single sugars are monosaccharides. These monomers can be bound together by glycosidic inkages into disaccharides, trisaccharides, and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides differ in C- number, stereochemistry, position of hydroxyl groups, position of the carbonyl group, and orientation of ring formation reactions (alpha or beta). Polysaccharides vary by the monosaccharide type, ring type, position of glycosidic linkage, length, and branching or not. How do storage and structural polysaccharides differ and what are the common examples in plants, fungi, and animals? How does the structure relate to its function? What organisms can hydrolyze cellulose (‘insoluble fiber’ of the human diet)? Lipids have a hydrophobic, why? How are fatty acids bound to glycerol to make a triglyceride. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and how does this affect melting at room temperature? How is this composition differ between land animals, fish and plants? What is the result of hydrogenation of cis- unsaturated fats and how does this relate to cardiovascular disease? What is a phospholipid and why does it have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. How does this dual property result in formation of phospholipid bilayer membranes ? Whats a steroid like cholesterol? Know eight general functions of proteins. A polypeptide is a polymer of amino acid monomers bound together by peptide linkages. Know the general structure of an amino acid and the four gro...
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