1 since i r 1 i r r2 for x y 62 a i number

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Unformatted text preview: 0, so to investigate the convergence of p (x, y ) it is enough, by the decomposition theorem, to suppose the chain is irreducible and all states are recurrent. The period of a state is the greatest common divisor of Ix = {n 1 : pn (x, x) > 0}. If the period is 1, x is said to be aperiodic. A simple su cient condition to be aperiodic is that p(x, x) > 0. To compute the period it is useful to note that if ⇢xy > 0 and ⇢yx > 0 then x and y have the same period. In particular all of the states in an irreducible set have the same period. The three main results about the asymptotic behavior of Markov chains are: n Theorem 1.19. Suppose p is irreducible, aperiodic, and has a stationary distribution ⇡ . Then as n ! 1, pn (x, y ) ! ⇡ (y ). Theorem 1.21. Suppose p is irreducible and recurrent. If Nn (y ) be the number of visits to y up to time n, then Nn (y ) 1 ! n Ey T y Theorem 1.23. Suppose p is irreducible, has stationary distribution ⇡ , and P x |f (x)|⇡ (x) < 1 then n X 1X f (Xm ) ! f (x)⇡ (x) n m=1 x 62 CHAPTER 1. MA...
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This document was uploaded on 03/06/2014 for the course MATH 4740 at Cornell.

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