New Perspectives on Melanoma_ The Role of PAX3

5 chapterithesisoverview

Info icon This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: the non‐neural ectoderm, and following the closure of the neural tube, they become located on the dorsal side of the neural tube. After delamination and migration from the neuroepithelium, these progenitor cells differentiate, committing to several 4 Chapter I – Thesis Overview lineages, including melanocytes, neurons, bone and endocrine cells, smooth muscles and craniofacial cartilage (Figure 1.1.1.B) [37,38]. Figure 1.1.1. Neural crest formation and diversification. A) Schematic representation of the emergence of neural crest progenitors at the boundary between the neural plate (np) and the non‐neural epidermis (epi). Following the closure of neural folds (nf), neural crest cells become located at the top of the closed neural tube (nt), from where migrating neural crest (nc) cells are observed. B) Diagram of various cell types arising from multipotent neural crest progenitors (adapted from [38]). A subset of neural crest cells (Pax3, Sox10 (SRY (sex determining region Y)­ box 10)‐ expressing cells) give rise to melanocyte precursors, termed melanoblasts, which are firstly observed in the cells overlaying and lateral to the neural tube. These cells are further characterised by expression of the melanoblast markers Kit (v­kit Hardy­Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene), Mitf (microphthalmia­ associated transcription factor) and Dct (dopachrome tautomerase) [12,39‐43]. Melanoblasts expand/proliferate in the migration staging area, before entering the dorsolateral pathway and start migrating towards the developing epidermis [12,44,45]. Upon reaching their final destination in the skin, melanoblasts differentiate into melanocytes, expressing Tyr (tyrosinase) and Tyrp1 (tyrosinase­ related protein 1), marking the start of melanogenesis (melanin synthesis) [43]. In prenatal skin, a proportion of melanoblasts become incorporated into developing hair follicles, while others remain located at the border between the epidermis and dermis; the latter are lost in murine post...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern