New Perspectives on Melanoma_ The Role of PAX3

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Unformatted text preview: ese findings. The results of these experiments were published in Medic et al., 2011, the third publication towards this thesis (Chapter IV). 30 ChapterII – Medic and Ziman, 2009 Chapter II REVIEW ARTICLE PAX3 across the spectrum: from melanoblast to melanoma Authors and Affiliations Sandra Medic1 and Melanie Ziman1,2* 1 School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia 2 School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia * Corresponding author Melanie Ziman School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup WA 6027, Australia Phone: (61 8) 6304 5171 Fax: (61 8) 6304 5851 E‐mail: [email protected] Running Title: PAX3 expression in melanocyte development and melanoma Citation: Medic S, Ziman M (2009) PAX3 across the spectrum: from melanoblast to melanoma. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol: 1‐13. Impact factor (2010): 10.125 ERA rank (2010): A 31 Chapter II – Medic and Ziman, 2009 Abstract The PAX3 transcription factor is critical for the proper development of neural crest lineages including melanocytes. These cells show continued PAX3 expression from formation to differentiation. While many expression, misexpression and mutation studies clarify the importance of PAX3 in melanocyte development, less well understood, and more perplexing, is the continued PAX3 expression in the adult skin. In this article we explore the multiple roles of PAX3 in melanocyte genesis, and draw on evidence from expression in developing melanoblasts, adult melanocytes and melanocyte stem cells. From this, we present a more encompassing theory that PAX3 is a key regulator of the myriad steps in melanocytic cell determination. These roles may be accomplished by differential association with cofactors, via alternate transcripts or posttranslational protein modification(s). In light of the plethora of information gleaned from development we then consider its roles in melanoma and pro...
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