New Perspectives on Melanoma_ The Role of PAX3

Generalintroduction cutaneousmelanoma cutaneous

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Unformatted text preview: qPCR RB RNA RT SCF v‐kit Hardy‐Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homologue, also known as c‐Kit mitogene‐activated protein kinase melanocortin 1 receptor melanoma cell adhesion molecule, also known as MUC18 microphthalmia‐associated transcription factor melan‐A, also known as melanoma antigen recognise by T cells (MART1) nestin nuclear factor kappa β 2 normal goat serum neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homologue cyclin‐dependant kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), also known as p16‐ INK4A paired box 3 premelanosome protein, also known as PMEL17, gp100, or SILV preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma phosphatase and tensin homolog quantitative (real time) polymerase chain reaction retinoblastoma protein ribonucleic acid reverse transcriptase stem cell factor, also known as steel factor (SLF), currently designated as KIT ligand (KITLG) sirtuin 1 SMAD family member 2 SMAD family member 3 SRY (sex determining region Y) ‐ box 9 SRY (sex determining region Y) ‐ box 10 transforming growth factor α transforming growth factor β tumour protein p53 tumour protein 52 tyrosinase, also known as oculocutaneous albinism IA (OCA1A) tyrosinase‐related protein 1 wingless‐type MMTV integration site family SIRT1 SMAD2 SMAD3 SOX9 SOX10 TGFα TGFβ TP53 TPD52 TYR TYRP1 WNT N.B. the following conventional notation is used: Pax3 (italicised) indicates gene Pax3 (non‐italicised) indicates protein PAX3 (italicised, capital) indicates human gene PAX3 (non‐italicised, capital) indicates human protein xviii Chapter I – Thesis Overview Chapter I – Thesis overview i. GENERAL INTRODUCTION Cutaneous melanoma Cutaneous melanoma (it will be referred to in the remainder of the text as ‘melanoma’) is the most aggressive form of skin cancer arising from melanocytic cells in the skin. While it represents only around 4% of all skin cancers, melanoma accounts for nearly 80% of skin cancer related deaths [4]. Recent statistics are alarming, showing that the worldwide incidence of melanoma is increasing at...
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