MCDB 1B Digestion Vocab

MCDB 1B Digestion Vocab - heterotroph an organism that must...

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heterotroph an organism that must obtain its energy by digesting other organisms autotroph organism that traps solar energy thru photosynthesis and uses that energy to synthesize all of their components. most plants, some bacteria, some protists. calorie vs Calorie calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise temp of 1 g of water 1 degree. Calorie (used 9j food) is a kcal = 1000 calories. joule 1 joule = .239 calories. metabolic rate the measure of the overall energy needs that must be met by the animal's food fats, carbohydrates and proteins the components of food that provide energy basal metabolic rate the metabolic rate resulting from all of the essential physiological functions that take place in a resting state. Physical energy adds to the basal energy requirement. glycogen how carbohydrates are stored in liver and muscle cells. total glycogen store = approx. one day's energy requirements. fat most important form of stored energy in animals. has more energy per gram than glycogen. stored with little associated water, making it more compact. protein not used to store energy, but can be metabolized as a last resort. food is taken into a body cavity (the lumen of the "gastrointestinal tract" or "gut") that is continuous with the outside environment, where it is acted on by enzymes secreted by exocrine glands. these enzymes break the food down into nutrient molecules that are absorbed by the cells lining the cavity. proteins are digested into. .. amino acids. the body wouldn't be OK with introducing foreign proteins directly and the immune system would ATTAAACCKK! tubular gut with a mouth that takes in food and an anus for waste excretion. the tubular gut has different regions that are specialized for different functions. tubular gut is "outside the body" and only by crossing the plasma membranes of the epithelial cells lining the gut do nutrients enter the body. villi and microvilli folds and tiny projections in the gut wall of vertebrates that create an enormous surface area for the absorption of nutrients. lumen cavity of the gut
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mucosa first layer of tissue after the lumen of the gut submucosa just outside the mucosa. a second layer of cells that contains blood and lymph vessels that carry absorbed nutrients to the rest of the body. circular muscle layer innermost layer of muscle cells external to the submucosa. cells are oriented around the gut. longitudinal muscle layer outermost layer of muscle cells external to the submucosa. cells are oriented along the length of the gut. serosa
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MCDB 1B Digestion Vocab - heterotroph an organism that must...

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