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Unformatted text preview: aid that a deviant subculture doesn’t arise from the inability of the members to
achieve success; instead he said that crime is a result of the fact that there is a lowerclass
subculture with different norms and values to the rest of society. He said these different values
mean that for members of this culture there are a number of concerns and things people want to
achieve, he called these focal concerns and they include:
Toughness – Miller said that people within the lowerclass subculture value toughness as an
important trait; however this can manifest itself in assault and violence.
Smartness – This culture also value the ability to outfox each other. This will often lead to people
trying to con, pickpocket or steal from each other in ‘clever’ ways.
Excitement – This culture constantly searches for excitement and thrills. This often means
gambling, alcohol and sexual adventures.
Miller said this mix of ‘focal concerns’ can lead to a culture which accepts crime and deviance as
David Matza said that delinquents aren’t actually in opposition to society’s norms and values.
He said that society has a strong moral hold on them and this prevents them from engaging in
delinquent activities for most of the time, he said that the fact that these people often show
remorse for their actions later in life support this view. Instead he said these young delinquents
are involved in crime only occasionally as parttime law breakers.
Matza said that delinquents convince themselves they are not breaking the law, and this allows
them to commit crimes whilst still accepting...
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