Fermi energy referenced to the vacuum level is the

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Unformatted text preview: n and recombina`on **Subject to Change** 3 Today’s Discussion •  Calcula`on of Carrier Concentra`on (Con`nued) •  Temperature Dependence of Carrier Concentra`ons •  Assignments •  Topics for Next Lecture 4 A Few Last Comments Metal Fermi Energy Vacuum Level Em = hv − qΦ •  In a metal, the Fermi Energy referenced to the vacuum level is the metal work func`on Electrochemical Poten`al •  Electrochemical Poten/al: a measure of the amount of energy needed to add or remove an incremental amount of a given charged species from a defined locus that may be under the influence of an electric field, incorpora`ng both chemical poten/al and electrosta/cs •  The Fermi Energy is equal to the electrochemical poten`al in a semiconductor Other Defini`ons •  Chemical Poten/al: The incremental change in the Gibbs Free Energy of the system per par`cle (fixed temperature, pressure, etc.). ∂G µ= ∂n •  Gibbs Free Energy: In a chemical system, the enthalpy of the system minus the product of the temperature and entropy (at constant pressure/volume) G = H − TS = U + PV − TS U = internal energy, S = entropy, H = enthalpy Fermi Level Versus Doping Type n-T...
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