phil146 - MIDTERM QUESTIONS These questions represent the...

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MIDTERM QUESTIONS These questions represent the majority of the topics that we have covered  so far.  Although there are seven questions here, three of them will appear  on the exam (and you will have to answer all three).  While having all the  questions in advance does take any guesswork out of “what will be on the  exam,” I nevertheless suggest that you take some time and go through all  of them before Thursday, November 1 st .  Please note that neither the  reading alone nor the notes alone are sufficient in answering these  questions --  a combination of both is the recommended approach.  Good  luck! 1. John Locke argued for a Social Contract based on consent.  What was his  argument?  Specifically: John Locke argues that people transfer some of their rights to the government in order to  better insure the stable, comfortable enjoyment of their lives, liberty and property.  Governments exist by the consent of the people in order to protect the rights of the people  and promote the public good.  a. On what basis did he reject state authoritarianism? (be specific!) b. What is the process by which a legitimate state arises? (Be sure to say  something about what some of the functions of a civil government are)  The state is legitimate if the individual has consented and the individual is within the  state’s jurisdiction. The functions of the state would be to preserve the rights to life,  liberty, health and property. To prosecute and punish who violate the rights of others.  And to pursue the public good. It became important to distinguish the legitimate from the illegitimate functions of institutions and to make the corresponding distinction for the uses of force by these institutions. c. What, according to Locke, are the limits of state power, and what are the  justifications for rebellion? 1
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Limits of state power – The state can only act when it is in accordance with  valid laws, these laws have to be publicized in advance, the state powers are  derived from the sum of individual natural rights in the state of nature. The  only reason that a state can wage war is for the preservation of life, property  and the advancement of the common good.
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