Ch 1 21:10 2001 A Space Odyssey protohumans shown gathering food. Shows killing another conspecific (member of one’s own race) Shows machine mind. Hominid: early human ancestors. Ardipithecus ramidus – 4.4 million y/o Australopithecus adarensis – 3-4 million y/o Australopithecus africanus - 1.5-3 million y/o Australopithecus robustus - 1-2 million y/o Homo habilis - 1.5-2 million y/o Homo erectus .5-1.5 million y/o Homo neanderthalensis – 30,000 to 300,000 y/o Homo sapien 200,000 – current Increase in size of brain over course of human evolution. Part of this increase is due to increase in size of body Development of more sophisticated behaviorsL tool use, nuanced social interaction, language, math, and complex problem solving also lead to expansion. Homo sapien is 1400 cc Ardipithecus ramidus was 350 cc MIND: collection of mental experiences; internal, subjective experiences, including our thoughts, feelings, perceptions, mental images and sense of self. Consciousness: capacity to be aware of mental experiences. Mind-body problem: just how are our mental experience related to our brain physiology.
Ch 2 21:10 Sponges are animals not plants.
Ch 2 21:10 Do not contain nerve cells or nervous system Hydra are tiny animals related to jellyfish. Simple nervous system and simple signal communication. Nematode nervous system used for studying b/c every neuron can be studied and traced. Vertebrate brain develops in embryo Cerebrum: Forebrain dominated by cerebrum Size of cerebrum increases relative to rest of the brain. Cerebrum is more bumpy in mammals Bumps and grooves are called gyri and sulci. Result of cerebrum being highly folded. Often called “Cerebral cortex” If the cerebral cortex could be removed from the human brain and unfolded, it would be 2.5 square feet. Meninges: tissue layers above the brain 1. Dura mater: “touch mother”
Ch 2 21:10 2. Arachnoid: “spiderweb like” 3. Pia mater: “soft mother” between arachnoid and pia is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that acts as cushion for the brain inside the skull. If meninges become inflated b/c of infection, this condition is called meningitis. Dorsal: up Ventral: down Anterior: front Posterior: rear Laterial: side Medial: middle. Cerebral cortex lobes: Frontal Parietal Occipital Temporal Central sulcus separates frontal from parietal Lateral fissure seperates temporal from frontal and parietal Longitudinal fissure divides right from left hemisphere Corpus callosum: bundle of nerve fibers that connect left and right hemisphere of the cerebral cortex Below corupus callosum are ventricles filled w/ CSF that flows between meninges and ventricles.
- Winter '08
- Amino Acids, intracellular receptor, voltagegated Na channel