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Sleep and eating disorders


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Unformatted text preview: eep disorder ­ A sleep disorder characterized by a mismatch between the body’s normal sleep–wake cycle and the demands of the environment. The disruption in normal sleep patterns can lead to insomnia or hypersomnia. For the disorder to be diagnosed, the mismatch must be persistent and severe enough to cause significant levels of distress or to impair the person’s ability to function in social, occupational, or other roles. Parasomnias Parasomnias Parasomnias - Sleep disorders involving abnormal behaviors or physiological events that occur during sleep or while falling asleep. Nightmare disorder - A sleep disorder characterized by recurrent awakenings due to frightening nightmares. Nightmares are often associated with traumatic experiences and generally occur most often when the individual is under stress. Sleep Terror Disorder Sleep It typically begins with a loud, piercing cry or scream in the night. The child (most cases involve children) may be sitting up, appearing frightened and showing signs of extreme arousal— profuse sweating with rapid heartbeat and respiration. The child may start talking incoherently or thrash about wildly but remain asleep. These terrifying attacks, called sleep terrors, are more intense than ordinary nightmares. Unlike nightmares, sleep terrors tend to occur during the first third of nightly sleep and during deep, non­REM sleep Sleepwalking Disorder Sleepwalking Sleepwalking disorder - A sleep disorder involving repeated episodes of sleepwalking. Sleepwalking disorder is most common in children, affecting between 1% and 5% of children, according to some estimates (APA, 2000). Between 10% and 30% of children are believed to have had at least one episode of sleepwalking. The prevalence of the disorder among adults is unknown, as are its causes. Treatment of Sleep Disorders Treatment The most common method for treating sleep disorders in the United States is the use of sleep medications. However, because of problems associated with these drugs, nonpharmacological treatment approaches, principally cognitive-behavioral therapy, have come to the fore. Biological Approaches Biological Antianxiety drugs are among the drugs often used to treat insomnia, including the class of antianxiety drugs called benzodiazepines (for example, Valium and Ativan). When used for the short-term treatment of insomnia, sleep medications generally reduce the time it takes to get to sleep, increase total length of sleep, and reduce nightly awakenings. Sleep medications can also produce chemical dependence if used regularly over time and can lead to tolerance (Pollack, 2004a). Psychological Approaches Psychological Psychological approaches have by and large been limited to treatment of primary insomnia. Cognitive­behavioral techniques are short term in emphasis and focus on directly lowering states of physiological arousal, modifying maladaptive sleeping habits, and changing dysfunctional thoughts. Cognitive­behavioral therapists typically use a combination of techniques, including stimulus control, establishment of a regular sleep–wake cycle, relaxation training, and rational restructuring. The End The...
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