Animal Hormones

Cost of treatment with rhgh us 10000 to 30000 a year

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Unformatted text preview: . • Today, recombinant human GH (rhGH) is synthesized in bacteria. • Cost of treatment with rhGH: 
 $US 10,000 to 30,000 a year 37 38 41 Liver Pancreas • ...functions as an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland • The exocrine parts accounts for ~99% of the pancreas. • Exocrine products are delivered to the intestine via the pancreatic duct: ! bicarbonate Pancreas ! digestive enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase, lipase) • The Islets of Langerhans are the endocrine part of the pancreas Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) Stain 39 40 41 41 Exocrine pancreas Paul Langerhans German Pathologist 1847-1888 Islets of Langerhans Fluorescence microscopy:
 Immuno-staining for insulin (green) 41 41 42 Islets of Langerhans • The Islets of Langerhans constitute approximately 1-2% of the mass of the pancreas. Islet of Langerhans • There are about one million islets in a human pancreas. • Each islet contains approximately 1,000 cells: ! Beta cells: produce Insulin (65-80% of the islet cells) ! Alpha cells: produce Glucagon (15-20%) • Islets of Langerhans are destroyed in type I diabetes Immuno-staining: Green=insulin 43 44 Red=glucagon 41 Insulin consists of two polypeptide chains 41 Blood glucose • Under normal physiological conditions, blood glucose concentrations are maintained within a narrow range, despite wide fluctuations in 
 supply and demand. e.g. food intake e.g. muscle activity • The brain depends almost entirely on blood glucose as an energy source. 45 46 41 Control of blood glucose • After a meal, blood glucose levels rise and stimulate the β cells to release insulin. • Insulin stimulates cells to use glucose and to convert it to glycogen (muscle tissue) and fat (adipose tissue). • When blood glucose levels fall, the pancreas stops releasing insulin, and cells switch to using glycogen and fat for energy. • If blood glucose falls too low, the α cells release glucagon which stimulates the liver to convert glycogen back to glucose. 47 48 41 The insulin receptor is a cell surface “tyrosine-kinase” receptor Insulin response 49 50 41 Ho...
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2014 for the course MCDB 1B taught by Professor Weimbs during the Winter '08 term at UCSB.

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