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Unformatted text preview: . • Today, recombinant human GH
(rhGH) is synthesized in bacteria. • Cost of treatment with rhGH:
$US 10,000 to 30,000 a year
37 38 41
Liver Pancreas • ...functions as an exocrine gland and an
• The exocrine parts accounts for ~99% of
• Exocrine products are delivered to the
intestine via the pancreatic duct:
! bicarbonate Pancreas ! digestive enzymes (trypsin,
chymotrypsin, amylase, lipase)
• The Islets of Langerhans are the
endocrine part of the pancreas
Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) Stain 39 40 41 41
Exocrine pancreas Paul Langerhans
Islets of Langerhans Fluorescence microscopy:
Immuno-staining for insulin (green)
41 41 42 Islets of Langerhans
• The Islets of Langerhans constitute approximately 1-2%
of the mass of the pancreas. Islet of Langerhans • There are about one million islets in a human pancreas.
• Each islet contains approximately 1,000 cells:
! Beta cells: produce Insulin (65-80% of the islet cells)
! Alpha cells: produce Glucagon (15-20%)
• Islets of Langerhans are destroyed in type I diabetes Immuno-staining: Green=insulin
43 44 Red=glucagon 41 Insulin consists of two polypeptide chains 41 Blood glucose • Under normal physiological conditions, blood glucose concentrations are maintained within a
narrow range, despite wide fluctuations in
supply and demand. e.g. food intake e.g. muscle activity • The brain depends almost entirely on blood
glucose as an energy source. 45 46 41 Control of blood glucose
• After a meal, blood glucose levels rise and
stimulate the β cells to release insulin.
• Insulin stimulates cells to use glucose and to
convert it to glycogen (muscle tissue) and fat
• When blood glucose levels fall, the pancreas
stops releasing insulin, and cells switch to using
glycogen and fat for energy.
• If blood glucose falls too low, the α cells release
glucagon which stimulates the liver to convert
glycogen back to glucose. 47 48 41 The insulin receptor is a cell surface “tyrosine-kinase” receptor Insulin response 49 50 41 Ho...
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2014 for the course MCDB 1B taught by Professor Weimbs during the Winter '08 term at UCSB.
- Winter '08