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Unformatted text preview: d to coma and death • Glucose excretion in
urine along with water:
dehydration • Diabetic Ketoacidosis
• 100% mortality rate if untreated
57 41 Chronic complications of D.M. 58 41 Diagnosis of D.M. The “glucose tolerance” test Diabetic Retinopathy! •can lead to severe vision loss or blindness. !
•most common cause of blindness among non-elderly adults in the US.
Diabetic Nephropathy! Text
•damage to the kidney which can lead to chronic renal failure, eventually requiring
dialysis. ! •Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of adult kidney failure worldwide.
Diabetic Foot! •Combination of neuropathy and arterial damage.!
•may cause skin ulcers, infection, necrosis and gangrene.!
•most common cause of adult amputation, usually of toes or feet, in the US.
59 60 41 Types of D.M.
• Type 1 diabetes (juvenile diabetes)
! ~10% of all cases.
! Due to autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing
cells — pancreatic beta cells Type 2 diabetes is related to obesity
Normal BMI = 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m2 • Type 2 diabetes (adult-onset diabetes)
! ~90% of all cases.
! Due to “insulin resistance” caused by lack of sufficient
functional insulin receptors on target cells.
! Likely related to obesity: 90% of type 2 diabetics are
obese. 61 62 Discovery of Insulin and the ﬁrst treatment of diabetes mellitus •In 1921, Frederick Banting and Charles Best (University of Toronto) discovered that an extract from pancreas could cure
diabetic dogs. Frederick Banting, (1891 –
Charles Best (1899 – 1978) •They purified the active ingredient and discovered insulin.
•In January 1922, a 14-year-old boy dying of diabetes was the first
patient being treated with insulin. •Banting and Best published the first paper on their discovery a
month later, in February, 1922. •In 1923, the Nobel Prize was awarded to Banting and Macleod (Banting’s boss) for the discovery, and each shared their portion of
the prize money with the other researchers on the project. 63 Photograph of Banting
and Best with a dog on
the roof of the Medical
B u i l d i n g , To r o n t o
(August 1921) 64 65 66 67 68...
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2014 for the course MCDB 1B taught by Professor Weimbs during the Winter '08 term at UCSB.
- Winter '08