Animal Hormones

Imbuqeduaulrathboneglut4flashglut4swf cellular effects

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Unformatted text preview: w can insulin cause increased uptake of glucose? ....show movie: Text ! http://research.imb.uq.edu.au/~l.rathbone/glut4/flash/glut4.swf Cellular effects of insulin: •Stimulates glucose uptake by GLUT-4 •Stimulates glycogen synthesis •Stimulates fatty acid synthesis 51 52 How can insulin cause increased uptake of glucose? 41 Diabetes Mellitus • Diabetes (Greek: διαβήτης = "passing through," or "siphon") • excessive urine production • coined by Aretaeus of Cappadocia, physician in ancient Greece Text • Mellitus (Latin = “sweet taste”). • glucose in urine and blood (“hyperglycemia”) • Added by Thomas Willis, English physician (1621-1675) Insulin triggers the exocytosis of intracellular vesicles containing the GLUT-4 transporters This results in an increased number of GLUT-4 molecules in the plasma membrane 53 41 Diabetes Mellitus: Epidemiology • Worldwide: at least 171 million people suffer from diabetes 54 41 Diabetes Mellitus • Before 1920s, diabetes mellitus was a fatal disease. • United States: ! ! 20.8 million people have been diagnosed with diabetes (2005) ! ! about 6.2 million people undiagnosed (estimate, American Diabetes Association)! ! estimated costs: $132 billion/year! • Weakness, lethargy, dramatic loss of body mass. • Cells not taking up glucose use fat and protein for fuel, resulting in the body’s wasting away and tissue and organ damage. ! 5%–10% of diabetes cases in North America are type 1, with the rest being type 2 55 56 41 Acute complication of D.M.: Diabetic Ketoacidosis 41 Acute complication of D.M.: Diabetic Hypoglycemia • Lack of insulin • No uptake of blood glucose by cells • Cells use fat + protein for energy • High blood glucose levels • Liver switches to “starvation metabolism”: makes ketone bodies • Glucose and ketone bodies cause high blood osmolality: forces water out of cells • Acidic ketone bodies lower blood pH: “Ketoacidosis” • Diabetic Hypoglycemia • Can occur if insulin-treatment “overshoots” • Lack of blood glucose can lea...
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