Animal Hormones

Imbuqeduaulrathboneglut4flashglut4swf cellular effects

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: w can insulin cause increased uptake of glucose? movie: Text ! Cellular effects of insulin: •Stimulates glucose uptake by GLUT-4 •Stimulates glycogen synthesis •Stimulates fatty acid synthesis 51 52 How can insulin cause increased uptake of glucose? 41 Diabetes Mellitus • Diabetes (Greek: διαβήτης = "passing through," or "siphon") • excessive urine production • coined by Aretaeus of Cappadocia, physician in ancient Greece Text • Mellitus (Latin = “sweet taste”). • glucose in urine and blood (“hyperglycemia”) • Added by Thomas Willis, English physician (1621-1675) Insulin triggers the exocytosis of intracellular vesicles containing the GLUT-4 transporters This results in an increased number of GLUT-4 molecules in the plasma membrane 53 41 Diabetes Mellitus: Epidemiology • Worldwide: at least 171 million people suffer from diabetes 54 41 Diabetes Mellitus • Before 1920s, diabetes mellitus was a fatal disease. • United States: ! ! 20.8 million people have been diagnosed with diabetes (2005) ! ! about 6.2 million people undiagnosed (estimate, American Diabetes Association)! ! estimated costs: $132 billion/year! • Weakness, lethargy, dramatic loss of body mass. • Cells not taking up glucose use fat and protein for fuel, resulting in the body’s wasting away and tissue and organ damage. ! 5%–10% of diabetes cases in North America are type 1, with the rest being type 2 55 56 41 Acute complication of D.M.: Diabetic Ketoacidosis 41 Acute complication of D.M.: Diabetic Hypoglycemia • Lack of insulin • No uptake of blood glucose by cells • Cells use fat + protein for energy • High blood glucose levels • Liver switches to “starvation metabolism”: makes ketone bodies • Glucose and ketone bodies cause high blood osmolality: forces water out of cells • Acidic ketone bodies lower blood pH: “Ketoacidosis” • Diabetic Hypoglycemia • Can occur if insulin-treatment “overshoots” • Lack of blood glucose can lea...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online