CLASSIC 20 Summer - 2004 Final Lecture Terms

CLASSIC 20 Summer - 2004 Final Lecture Terms - Classics 20-...

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Unformatted text preview: Classics 20- Final Lecture Terms Origins of Rome 1. 3 regions of Rome a. Eturia: northern region settled by the Etruscans and merians b. Latium: central region settled by Latins and Sabines c. Campania: southern region settled by Greeks and SE mnites 2. Palatine Hill: the first inhabited place in ancient Roman :ivilization, became the home of the emperors egg-3+1- led R om utl V6 3. Livy: wrote history of Rome from the ti e of the Trojan war till the end of his lifetime (Augustus), used oral tradition] stories that were p2 ssed down from generation to generation 4. Historical Characters a. Aeneas: came over from Troy post-war, son of Ancl iises and Venus, believed to have been married before with son Asca nius (Iulus) but not sure what story is accurate b. Anchises: father of Aeneas c. Venus: goddess of love, mother to Aeneas, making him only part mortal d. Lavinia: new wife of Aeneas, father is king of Latin 5 (given to Aeneas as either alliance or because he beat her father in battle: e. Ascanius: also Iulus, son of Aeneas, ancient ancestor to the Caesar’s who claimed connection therefore making them part imr iortal f. Rhea Silvia: raped by Mars, gives birth to Remus and Romulus, but are cast off and saved by a Shepard and she-wolf t-’€s 71a] Virgin g. Romulus: brother who built city on Palatine Hill, (It clared the father of Rome when he kills his brother and avenges his father’s death, signs from the gods (12 vultures versus 6 vultures) 5. Afltine Hill: the place Remus chose as his city, later b ecame one of the 7 hills fly, and Society L ' _ head of the household, always a male wh 0 held absolute control etc. 1 31% a} Menomen: would be the first name and very limit: :d in choices If: Nomen: the surname or last name of the family, usr ally ending in -ius- o. Cognomen: added on to the end of the name, simila r to a nickname, mferring to some physical characteristic or occupat .on 3. ‘ pilius: second king of Rome and also a Sabine, :onsidered religion _ 'ficant than military accomplishments (organized fixed rituals and *f' _ 6 established priests as authority figures & r , ised cults of individual gods such as fire and sacrifices 3. ‘ d with birds, and used in methods of divination such as n _ e sky, watching birds, and examining the .nsides of sacrificed “religious reasons. Mme mm paw/ml 9/619hW Mm: 44am an We age/mes, 6. pontifex: in charge of drawing calendar, determming the yea r, and the supre e ruler of all religious! civil laws, existed the Pontich Maximi IS (chief priest) 7. Vestal Virgins: priestesses of the God Vesta (hearth) and required to be virgins with 30 years of strict prayer, in charge of keeping the wills 8. Domestic Gods a. Genius: male guardian, ancestor spirit of the family and portrayed as a snake b. Penates: divine household gods who guarded the far 1in wealth by making simple offerings c. Lares: gods of the country, protected family and symbols of good fortune, represented by a pair of young men Organization of Space and Time 1. atrium: large central room in Roman household, usually entails a garden in the middle with surrounding rooms and included painted image s 2. Forum: political, commercial, entertainment, and legal cent a: of the city located in the middle of the city (each Caesar would build their own 17 )rum), was the housing area where most of the wealthy lived until moving to Palatine Hill 3. Spring of J uturna: raped by J upitor but rewarded with immortality, located in the south comer of the Forum by Palatine Hill 4. Pond of Curtuis: small pool of water that rises and falls and associated with the dead, place of human (usually young man or woman) sacril ice 5. Sacred Way: center road in which triumphant generals and soldiers marched, people throw coins in as walking past 6. Campus Martius: called the field of Mars (war) and place a f soldier practice but later became chief building site for Caesars 7. Janus: two-faced god of passage-ways or arches, symbolize d leaving one thing and entering into another, month of January 8. pontifices: solar calendar was 10 days short and so this was an intercalary month in order to even it out a. kalends: first day of the month b. nodes: fifth day of the month, except when on the s :venth g c. thirteenth day of the montfii, except when on the 15‘11 b by :;W poet/2’6 M2" ‘9 “ A 4. daqfl s V0429 "at The Etrusccalrix 0375 / Few ' ‘ l. CloanIMuima: first sewer of Rome APP,“ flawed/7" 5’ Chews 2. Pyrg' “Mlets: bilingual gold tablets of Etruscan and l’unis but only had apt-um 30 words 3. Zayab My: linen inscribed with Etruscan ritual texts :1200 words but only about Sonar-repeating words) but knowledge of numbers from one to six 01;, 4. lemmas body-guard that could be recognized by their bundle of rods ’-F6I 035 ) ' V0 W 5. ‘ 'bronzed sheep liver used in describing signs from the gods, Wseparate categorical sections, practice of hepatoscopy .v ‘w - Roman Polifiisflmentz 1. Senate: counsil of elders which included only patricians at fi rst, but later open to patricians both directly and indirectly, had no elections, but appointed and then hold the title for life, no payment so must be wealthy and he _d lots of power 2. Comitia Centuriata: popular assemblege, military power, representation of wealthy heads of military 3. consul: executive branch, with commander in chief status, tr IO consulships existed in which they shared power 4. praetor: chief executive, administration of civil law(attorney general) in Rome, elected by comitia centuriata, originally one, but later there i vere 8 5. aedile: responsible for building and up-keeping sacred build ngs such as the temples, also supervised the games (plebian office at first) 6. quaestor: arranged trials of men accused of capital crimes, a: :sistant to generals and governors in provinces 7. censor: in charge of controlling who could be considered a citizen and controlling public morals, appointed for 1.5-5 year terms 8. tribunes plebes: plebians, rights of people represented, right: of sacrosancititas (sacred bodies) and intercessio (right to veto) _ _ 1%” / Ci. WOVMWDWO ~ when men l‘”> "iL'Y‘;+ “PP” “4554 mm H‘ L’ ‘5‘ 1'” y Conquest and Expansion “h? "Ht 6 or"; “A 9"“ i” ' 1. Sacking of Rome by Gauls: last book by Livy, Camillus sav as city by making speech against migrating to Veii, ambush of Capitalline stop ped by flock of geese that wakes the Romans 2. Carthage: area in North Africa that is very rich and fertile, invaded by the Romans and described as the enemy of Rome, founded by Phoenician (Lebanon) settlers 3. Dido: first queen of Carthage, had a love affair with Aeneas and committed suicide when he leaves her (story in Livy) 4. Punic Wars: series of three wars fought between Carthage a1 id Rome 5. Regulus: failed invasion of Carthage during first Punic War, wanted to die with his soldiers when they were being executed, known as a tragic figure who died due to his arrogance 6. Hanniw to avenge Carthage and his father’s defeat «luring previous war with Romhed to conquer Rome but failed due to military mistake (Hastrubal- beheaded and sent back to Hannibal) 7. Fabius Mllxirnus: receives cognomen of “Conctator” which rneans delayer due to his denying tactics with Hannibal (shield of Rome), responsible for the scorched- earth MM 8. Sanus: general who defeats Hannibal and gains a l territory in Spain 2mm 9. WI: great orator who spoke of Roman identity a: d necessity of morals dwui’unic War, phrase “Carthago delenda est” which neans Carthage must bew-destroys city afier 3 years and signifies the be; ginning of the dUMROme *Originales: seven books of Roman history in Latin Beginnings of Roman Literature 1. Twelve Tables: set of laws actually written on wooden tabl: :ts (later bronze) in order to abort judicial corruption 2. Livius Andronicus: believed to be a Greek slave/ tutor who translated Homer’s Odyssey into Latin 3. Plautus: author of Roman comedies in which he was known for rearranging cultural roles (smart slave, dumb master, etc.) author of Mil as Gloriosus which described a braggert soldier with role of scheming slave ant. lots of puns and play on words I Love, Wax: 4. Terrence: more restrained, sophisticated in humorous comedies, wrote only 6 plays with most famous being “the brothers” in which two brothers are raised in two different manners, importance of moral message within situation of comedy MW 5. Ennius: epic poem “annales” in which he writes of Roman history, first original Latin epic Plautus and Roman Drama 1. Atellan farces: skits in which prominent themes include che sting and trickery with lots of swearing, characters such as the glutton old man and cocky slave 2. Plantine drama: pure entertainment with exaggerated stock characters, word play, songs (cantica), not necessarily considered “good” writing t ut still funny today Greece and Rome 1. Tarentum (Sparta): leading city in Southern Italy, controller trade but was Greek, Roman ships were in bay and ambushed by Greeks with all passengers being either enslaved or killed 2. Pyrrhus: Greek military strategist and general, gained title of greatest enemy next to Hannibal by defeating Romans in many battles *Pyrrhic victory: winning battle but no resources left so it’s a false win 3. Philip V: conquered Persia, Egypt and India along with the conquest of Greek culture 4. Titus Quincitius Flaminius: Roman general who defeated M acedonia and proclaimed d1 Greeks free and encouraged them to form separate city-states in order to have many weak enemies instead of one big enemy 5. Persius: son of Philip V who attempts to reunite the city-stai es into fighting the Romans again but loses to Lucius Aemilus Paullus 6. Corinthvifltportant Greek city of commerce and trade but de stroyed by the Romans same year as Carthage leaving the Romans witl .out any true enemies 7. Roman Biperialism: guided by economic needs, not the nee :l to conquer the world, expansion of the empire and name as the world’s gre itest power by elimng all powerful enemies (isolationism) 8. Posidoaius: Greek stoic philosopher who stated that Rome civilized the world by bringing law and order to places of political unrest and pove rty, Rome maintained peace Catullus: The New Poet 1. Catullus: Roman poet who wrote during the time of Caesar, wrote of love and SEX, especially about the unknown female named Lesbia (; ossibly Clodia) 2. Neoterics: first true literary/ poetic movement that revolted z gainst heaviness and national epics, wrote instead of light and sensual things (compared to the beat poets of the 1950’s) a. concerned with form and size (quality not quantity) b. precise composition c. refinement of verses, experimental 3. Cornelius Nepos: writer from N. Italy who wrote biographies of famous and important people like Hannibal as well as histories of the tru e world (outside Rome) 4. Rufus: lover of Clodia, brought up on fraudulent charges of ittempted poisoning by Clodia once dumped and Clodius Pulcher, defended by Cicero in is speech 5. Appius Claudius Caecus: honorable man who Cicero uses it comparison to Rufus in order to sway the jury against Clodia and Pulcher Cicero and the End of the Republic 1. Cicero: most known Roman due not only to his vast number of speeches but also his personal letters that were published after his death 2. Italian/ Social War: was fought against the allies of Rome d: :manding citizenship, Rome won the battles but still granted citizenship for those heat in order to increase the sense of an Italian indentity 3. prescriptions: public executions due to political allegences, macted by Sulla in which he kills all of Marius’ supporters 4. Marius and Sulla: MariIIs is consul 7 times and uses military for political purposes for the first time, responsible for the standing army, weapons, benefits, etc of the organized military. Sulla takes control once Marius dies 5. Tullia: Cicero’s daughter, dies and Cicero divorces his wife because he feels she is not mourning the death of his daughter accurately 6. Catilina'. enemy of Cicero for consulship, ran against him at .d lost twice, for revenge, he wanted to assassinate Cicero and take over the t ity but Cicero tricks him to admitting conspiracy to the Senate 7. First Triumvitate: included Crassus who provided the mono y, Pompey who had the popular support! alliance with the people and J Caesar u ho was the militant expert, they take control legally and without force 8. Cato the Younger: opposed to the triumvirate but sent to Cy prus to be the govenor until the triumvirate got it’s way 9. Rubicon: river that was the boundary that Caesar crossed in order to start civil war 10. Battle ofifiarsalus: famous battle in which Pompey is killed and Caesar wins but spares evelyone 11. dictataa’erpetuus: dictator forever, Caesar’s title after he w ins civil war but was assassinated a few months later on the Ides of March Caesar and Cleopatra 1. King Nicomedes: great influence on Caesar with the reputa ion of being a “player”, known as the man of every woman and the woma 1 of every man, importance of the fact that men’s reputations do not last for ever because of his relationship with Caesar 2. Cleopatra VII: of the Ptolemy family who married brothers and sisters in order to keep line pure, Caesar defeats her younger brother and reins tates Cleopatra on the throne, has stormy relationship with him both in Egypt and : n Rome, last of the Ptolemies Caesarion: unacknowledged son of Caesar and Cleopatra Capurnia: Caesar’s third wife, during the relationship betwe en Caesar and Cleopatra 5. Caesar’s ambitions: wants to make another world capital in Alexandria, vengence on the Parthians, wants to be acknowledged as a divine lead er but refuses the crown as the king of Rome three times .45.“ Reading Virgil 1. Virgil: author of the Aeneid, most read poet of the Middle 13 .ges due to his poem with distinct similarities to the story of Christ 2. Aeneid: story of Aeneas but with additions and revisions, ca :1 be read as patriotic and glorious or as a story of pessimism and unresolved tension, format similar to the Odyssey (first 6 books) and the Illiad (last 6 books), believed to mirror the life of Augustus by some 3. epic poetry: anything used to describe something grand, big scale but also a narrative poem that discusses the tragedy of a great hero am his travels! experiences and deeds 4. Creusa: presence of Aeneas” wife in Troy, difference in this narrative and that of Li in that Vir ‘1 must choose which lotline to take, cannot ex lain both like Lig "Wé’d ‘Tb 1401444?) MLvm-vpcaflzat r?“- V’igyXa 6' 41/979 Judd) j 5. arma virumque cano: the opening lines of the Aeneid which translates as “of arms and the man I sing”, direct reference to the Aeneid wheneve' seen in literature 6. Juno: the cause of Aeneas’ troubles, she is mad at him for St me reason, represents disorder and anger/ chaos Aeneas and Dido 1. Hector: Trojan hero who rescues Aeneas 2. myths of Aeneas: he is looked favorably on by the gods, not his time to die a. Diomedes: saved by his mother Venus b. Achilles: saved by Poseidon! Neptune 3. Penthesilea: Amazon queen who fought for Troy but killed by Achilles, he falls in love with her right before she dies, representation of Dido as threat to great leader Aeneas), tragedy 4. Anna: sister of Dido, knows 0 F 199940“? plan *0 6 Wm/ Earn/dc épc,a‘~ ‘_ "@0778 0» pilot '7"? W WW0 71') W From Octavion to Augustus 1. Brutus: the figurehead of the conspiracy against Caesar, alig ns himself with Cato in opposition to Caesar, gains reputation as a liberator 2. Cassius: brains behind the plot in conspiracy to assassinate Caesar 3. Portia: daughter of Cato who Brutus marries in order to form an alliance, similar to Shakespeare’s Portia >090 Marc Antony: strong supporter of Caesar and shared the cor isulship with him before his assassination, he returns Rome to a republic afier his death, compromise in that he won’t bring prescriptions against the conspirators but must keep Caesar’s laws in place, performed PUBLIC funeral for Caesar, represented as a god Octavian: adopted son of Caesar who takes the name and pl. ms vengance against conspirators, becomes Augustus Second triumvirate: included Marc Antony, Octavian, and L epodous, they ruled legally for 5 years and ordered prescriptions for Caesar’s en :mies including Cicero and his family Battle of Phillippi: symbolized the end of the republic in that it was Marc Antony and Octavian vs. Brutus and Cassius (Marc Antony took control) Octavia: sister of Octavian and married to Marc Antony Battle of Actium: Octavian vs. Marc Antony and Cleopatra, part of the War of Propaganda in which he becomes Augustus and drives Anto my and Cleopatra to suicide, kills the children of Antony and Cleopatra 10. priceps: first man, title taken by Augustus, he holds power a f consul and tribune but never takes title of king or emperor BE’Power of Images % SEE Twigs VIOI'CQ “Ear Obi—ails 1. 2. 3. Prima Porta Statue: villa of Livia (wife), personification of 1 irovinces in terms of East and West Temple of Divine Julius: Roman forum, altar for the god and speaker’s platform, still intake today Temple of Apollo: located on the Palatine Hill, Greek and L itin library, but only the podium and steps remain there today Forum of Augustus: adjacent to the Roman forum, in the center is the Temple of mars Ultor, themes of vengeance with double meaning of assassination of J Caesar and defeat of Crassus Pantheon: built first by the Marcus Agrippa but restored by Hadrian, features a dome building and is almost entirely preserved Altar of Augustan Peace: commemorated return from Spain and Gaul in honor of Augustus, his family, and chief officials and priests of the st ate Obelisks: gnomon of marble sundial inlaid with bronze lines , brought from Heliopolis (Egypt) Mausoleum of Augustus: place in which Augustus’ relatives are to be buried, first to be buried is Marcellus (nephew), contains both Etruscan and Eastern architectural influences Theater of Marcellus: first stone theater in Rome, can hold a pproximatcly 10,000 to 14,000 spectators. Philosophers in Rome I. Epicurius: Greek philosopher who strove to banish the fear of death by explaining the workings and substance of the universe (atoms), presenc e of ataraxia which states that true happiness stems from not worrying about dc: .th, true supreme human aim 2. Lucretius: follower of Epicurean philosophy, wrote “on the nature of things” which begins with an invocation to Venus as the goddess of mother nature and life (6 books) 3. Stoic: Zeno, we as a people are constantly evolving, named tfier the place Stoa where they met to talk about philosophy 4. Panaetus: adopted stoicism to Rome in which teachings incl ided living according to nature, the presence of a divine force can be found within every soul, the importance of conscience and reason and above all the persistence of morality and ethics, can control your own death 5. Thrasea Paetus: lives during the reign of Nero, forced to cor unit suicide and therefore earns respect, ultimate freedom comes in the ability to control your own death 6. Seneca: Stoic writer who wrote the Moral Epistles, addresse d to Lucilius (fiction character) with themes of friendship, slavery, DEATH, idea that one must live life without the influence of society, test of endurance (similar to Christianity) Ovid and the Art of Love 1. Elegaic Couplet: used for funerals and songs of war but also associated with love and women in Ovid’s poetry (reference to Virgil’s Aeneid u ith opening lines) 2. Roman Elegists: a. Gallus: wrote during J Caesar, a poet but also a general in the army and the first Roman governor of Egypt, tried for treason :t‘or failure to adequately superiortize Augustus in his poetry but committed suicide instead, character of Lycoris who is similar to Lesbiz b. Propertius: thematic importance of love over politics, love is more important than any political alliances or ambitions, s rong dislike of Augustus c. Sulpicia: women poet who wrote under a pseudonyn .n, themes of slavery and bondage, male figure must make the decisions, \ mmen not capable 3. Ovid: most popular poet in Rome due to his sexual poetry 8.] 1d lessons of love, writes implicitly about such topics 4. Amores: Ovid’s poetry dealing with issues such as adultery, abortion and physical appearances, character of Corinna 5. The Art of Love: originally 5 books but shortened to 3, the first describes how a man can catch a woman, the second details how to keep her and the third is an instruction manual for the ladies, exiled by Augustus 10 yea rs after he wrote the novel to Tomis 6. Pasiphae: ancient story of a woman who falls in love with a bull and will stop at nothing to have sex with it, jealous of the other cows, used a s proof that all women ever want is sex Spectacle of Violence 1. Circus Maximus: located below the Palatine Hill and used mainly for chariot racing or hippodrome (horse racing), started as entertainmer .t for the aristocracy but soon became source of entertainment for all 2. eggs and dolphins: used to count the number of laps made, there were 7 large wooden eggs and dolphins were used in association with Neptune as the fastest moving animal Colosseum: place of gladiatorial shows and fighting betwee '1 animals, contained a statue of Nero with head of Sun god, also held public execu' ions for criminals but later became a profession and source of income for some Constraints of Gender 1. patria potestas: the absolute power held by the paterfamilias to determine life/ death, controlled ALL forms of property including wife, dat .ghter, slaves and most importantly his sons manus: literally means handing over the authority of daughtu :r in marriage or the transfer of slave power confarreatio: marriage ceremony in which sacrifices and voi vs are given before a priest (ideally the pontifex), it’s the most traditional and con servative ceremony for the patricians but not really performed after a while coemptio: marriage as a business transaction in that it invokes a transfer of power over woman and a dowry usus: most common marriage ceremony that is performed in Rome, a period of mutual living together for one year, if the wife spends 3 consecutive nights at her father’s house, her father remains in control over her life Oppian Law: luxury restrictions placed on women during 2"1Punic War, first instance of women publically arguing against men after war ended Vocconian Law: restrictions on inheritance for women in tel ms of property and control over life, changed by Augustus Julian Laws: adultery becomes a punishable crime although prostitutes were still legal, a husband/ father cannot kill a woman over adultery u; iless caught in the bed of their legal guardian, women are unable to charge their husband with adultery, abortion is illegal, tax encentives for married coupl es and children, widows are forced to remarry after certain amount of time Prominent Women a. Cornelia: daughter of Scipio Africanus, refused to In my the King of Egypt due to her responsibilities as a mother b. Servillia: mother of Brutus, mistress of J Caesar, and V2 sister of Cato the Elder, believed to be involved with the conspiracy to murder Caesar c. Fulvia: wife of Clodius Pulcher (think Cicero and Cl )dia), marries Marc Antony and demands the tongue of Cicero because h 3 spoke slander about her All in the Family 1. Julia the Elder: only child of Augustus, the means to his suc :ession in her male relatives 2. Gauis Caesar: adopted son of Augustus who had Julia the Y )unger as a daughter 3. 4. Livia: wife to Augustus for 52 years, gave birth to Tiberius who would rule as an Lucius Caesar: other adopted son of Augustus emperor from 14-37 AD 9° Suetonius: prolific writer and scholar in which he wrote Lix es of Twelve Caesars that described the biographies from J Caesar to Domitian, a rranged thematically, not chronologically Nero: described as a cruel and tyrannical Roman emperor v be ruled from 54-68, hated Christians and persecuted them to the point of them I: sing martyrs, wants to return to the practices of Augustus Aggripina the Younger: mother of Nero but murdered after he becomes emperor, responsible for bringing Seneca out of exile to teach her son Caligula: emperor Gaius Caesar, nickname means “little bo )ts” Claudius: husband to Aggripina the Younger who is her um :le, his daughter Octavia marries Nero and is adopted as his son due to the n arriage Imperial Villas 1. Villa Iovis: associated with emperor Tiberius and the god Jupiter, most of the upper structure is lost but there were baths and loggia with excellent view of the sea Domus Aurea: built after the great fire of 64 and believed to be associated with Nero, five sided building who at least 2 levels and contained an octagonal hall, never finished Arbiter of Taste 1. Cremutius Cordus: author accussed of treason against Augu stus due to his praising of Brutus and Cassius for assassination of Caesar, directly defied the emperor by committing suicide because “living under a tyre at is no life at all”, caused authors to write about safe subjects Lucan: nephew of Seneca, wrote poem known as Parsalia 0: ' Bellurn Civile which had theme of civil war between Caesar and Pompey but epic heroes are really anti-heroes with lots of blood and violence, attempted assassination of Nero Seneca: famous orator charged with adultery and sent into e xile only to be brought back by Agrippina the Younger to tutor Nero, later charged along with Lucan as conspirator in assassination of Nero and sentencec to death, but he committed suicide 3 time (great honor) Petronius: earned fame trough laziness and author of one of two remaining Roman novels named the Satyricon (encolpia and trimalchil )) satyros: Greek word for Satyr who was part human, part go: Lt/horse with large proficiency in drinking and having sex satura: Latin word meaning anything that’s a medley, comb .ned stories, poem with theme of social amorality which is held in ridicule Characters of Satyrica: a. Encolpius: means crack or cleavage which signifies Jis very low moral behavior, described as a dumb and sexually active p4 :rson, his epic journey is a quest to reinstate his potency b. Priapus: the god of ma] sexuality, acted as the punisl ler of Encolpius by making him impotent 8. c. Trimalchio: source of inspiration for Fitzgerald’s G: Ltsby, self-made freedrnan who has lots of money but NO social class or morals, represented by the New Rich in Rome sexual attitudes a. constructionalists: argument that sexual descretion and relationships are influenced by culture b. essentialists: sex is determined by nature, fixed and unchanging throughout time and class with little or no relationship to culture Slavery in Rome 1. P” manumission: the freeing of slaves (letting go of the manus = control/ authority), slaves can be freed by being added to official census, an ofi icial act of the magistrate, through the death of his master and will, or by s ating “be free” in presence of others pileus: cap that shows signs of being a slave Augustan laws of manurnission: limitations of the number c f slaves that can be freed at one time, minimum age of slaves required and also minimum age of owners that can do the freeing, the formalization of a half-v 'ay status between slavery and emancipation peculium: slave salaries, saved throughout life and freedom could be bought for yourself and family columbariurn: type of tomb used to bury slaves and freedmt n, resembling a pidgeon-hole with lots of richly decorated images Mystery Cults, Jews and Christians 1. 2. 3. astrology: serious study and science of looking at stars and :inding meaning, source of divine wisdom and power Thrasyllus: astrologer during the emperor Tiberius who live :1 in Villa Iovis during the last 12 years of his rule, became a star upon his death Magna Mother Cult: great mother goddess, cult that was brought to Rome during war with Hannibal, festival in her honor which included a s: LCfifiCB of a bull, could only be expelled if goddess received by a vestal virgin, cult is more political than religious mystery cult: secret ritual/ initiation process, had sacred tex1s that claimed some special revelation and knowledge with some sort of frenzy/ )rgy to demonstrate ‘ beliefs, promised salvation and immortality of body Isis: Egyptian cult that Augustus tried to end, strong infiuen 3e under Caligula, considered the mistress of life and associated with the Virgi 1 Mary, strongly associated with women Mithras: story of rock being struck by god of light with eter 1al struggle with god of death (battle between good and evil), first human couple me from slaying of bull and its blood, not persecuted in Rome because it was In It monotheistic (still worshipping Roman gods) but excluded women diaspora: spreading of Jews throughout Europe after Jerusalem was destroyed by Romans, similar enemy as Carthage 8. Christianity: early Christians heavily persecuted by Nero d1 .e to their inability to worship the emperor and blamed for the fire in 64, accussec, of cannibalism, incest, and treason Pliny the Younger: wrote letters to emperor Trajan asking h ow to persecute! prosecute the Christians in terms of age, gender, length of v rorship and ability to recant, Trajan told him to let the Christians be because he d Edn’t want any witch hunts End of Antiquity 1. 2. 10. Edward Gibbon: author of the history of the Decline and Fa ll of Rome, reason being the decline of ethics and morality (moralist) Age of Good emperors a. Trajan: legally designated heir of his predessor although adoption became the way to get the heir that you want (family connection and best qualified), expanded the boundaries of the empire tl ie farthest and built many prominent buildings and structures Hadrian: gave up many military provinces because empire too big to handle, concentrating on strengthening the existing provinces, first emperor to visit ALL provinces, started the fashion of wearing a beard 0. Marcus Aurelius: stoic ruler, spent time attempting :o secure the boundaries of empire and signified the beginning 01 the downfall of Roman empire Diocletian: restores order somewhat and implemented refo: ms to lighten tax burden, stopped inflation by putting a maximum price on p :oducts and maximum wage(edict of prices), split empire into east and west with 2. equal emperors (brought about civil war) Augusti and Caesars: title given to the co-emperors (august i) and their vice- emperors (caesars), four men ruling at one time Constantine: reunited the empire under one ruler, first Christian emperor, freedom of religion/ worship catacombs: cemetaries with actual buried bodies as opposei to cremation, similar to the columbario for slaves in decorations Byzantium: Constantinople, once empire was split into eas: and west, became the capital of the eastern empire but fell to Turks in 1453 Alaric: person responsible for sacking Rome in 410, first time Rome is sacked since the Gauls 800 years before Attila the Hun: attempted to sack it again during the 5 cent iry but avoided by Pope Leo I who convinced him to leave Romulus Augustulus: last Roman emperor in the west although the eastern empire exsisted until 1400’s, began exploration age by all of Bum] 3e ...
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CLASSIC 20 Summer - 2004 Final Lecture Terms - Classics 20-...

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