APUS history notes chpt19 Renewing the Sectional struggle

The American Pageant: A History of the Republic, 12th Edition

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A.P. U.S. History Notes Chapter 19: “Renewing the Sectional Struggle” ~ 1848 – 1854 ~ I. The Popular Sovereignty Panacea 1. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo ended the Mexican-American War , but it started a whole new debate about the extension of slavery, with Northerners rallying around the Wilmot Proviso ; however, the Southerners shot it down. 2. Before, the two national parties, the Democrats and the Whigs had strong support from all over the nation; now, that was in jeopardy. 3. In 1848, Polk, due to tremendous overworking and chronic diarrhea, did not seek a second term, and the Democrats nominated General Lewis Cass , a veteran of the War of 1812 , a senator and diplomat of wide experience and considerable ability, and the originator of popular sovereignty , the idea that issues should be decided upon by the people (specifically, it applied to slavery, stating that the people in the territories should decide to legalize it or not. i. It was good because it was a compromise between the extremes of the North and the South, and it stuck with the idea of self-determination, but it could spread slavery. II. Political Triumphs for General Taylor 1. The Whigs nominated General Zachary Taylor , the hero of Buena Vista, a man with no political experience, but a popular man, and they avoided all picky issues in his campaign. 2. Disgusted antislavery Northerners organized the Free Soil Party , a party committed against the extension of slavery in the territories and one that also advocated federal aid for internal improvements and urged free government homesteads for settlers. i. This party appealed to people angry over the half-acquisition of Oregon, people who didn’t like Blacks in the new territory, a well as “conscience Whigs” who condemned slavery on moral grounds. ii. The Free Soilers nominated Martin Van Buren 3. Neither major party talked about the slavery issue, but Taylor won narrowly. III. “Californy Gold” 1. In 1848, gold was discovered in California , and thousands of men flooded into the state, thus blowing the lid off of the slavery issue. 2. Most people didn’t “strike it rich,” but there were many lawless men and women. 3. As a result, California (privately encouraged by the president) drafted a constitution and then applied for statehood, thus bypassing the usual territorial stage and avoiding becoming a slave state. IV.
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APUS history notes chpt19 Renewing the Sectional struggle -...

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