murphyd6 - See discussions stats and author profiles for this publication at https\/www.researchgate.net\/publication\/3457586 Waveguide physical

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See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: Waveguide physical modeling of vocal tract acoustics: Flexible formant bandwidth control from increased model dimensionality Article in IEEE Transactions on Audio Speech and Language Processing · June 2006 DOI: 10.1109/TSA.2005.858052 · Source: IEEE Xplore CITATIONS 48 READS 243 3 authors , including: Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects: Singing behaviour and development across the lifespan View project Widening Young Male Participation in Chorus View project David M Howard Royal Holloway, University of London 393 PUBLICATIONS 2,922 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE All content following this page was uploaded by David M Howard on 23 January 2015. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.
promoting access to White Rose research papers White Rose Research Online Universities of Leeds, Sheffield and York White Rose Research Online URL for this paper: Published paper Mullen, J., Howard, D.M. and Murphy, D.T. (2006) Waveguide Physical Modeling of Vocal Tract Acoustics: Flexible Formant Bandwidth Control From Increased Model Dimensionality, IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing, Volume 14 (3), 964 - 971. [email protected]
964 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO, SPEECH, AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 14, NO. 3, MAY 2006 Waveguide Physical Modeling of Vocal Tract Acoustics: Flexible Formant Bandwidth Control From Increased Model Dimensionality Jack Mullen, David M. Howard, and Damian T. Murphy Abstract— Digital waveguide physical modeling is often used as an efficient representation of acoustical resonators such as the human vocal tract. Building on the basic one-dimensional (1-D) Kelly–Lochbaum tract model, various speech synthesis techniques demonstrate improvements to the wave scattering mechanisms in order to better approximate wave propagation in the complex vocal system. Some of these techniques are discussed in this paper, with particular reference to an alternative approach in the form of a two-dimensional waveguide mesh model. Emphasis is placed on its ability to produce vowel spectra similar to that which would be present in natural speech, and how it improves upon the 1-D model. Tract area function is accommodated as model width, rather than translated into acoustic impedance, and as such offers extra control as an additional bounding limit to the model. Results show that the two-dimensional (2-D) model introduces approximately linear control over formant bandwidths leading to attainable realistic values across a range of vowels. Similarly, the 2-D model allows for application of theoretical reflection values within the tract, which when applied to the 1-D model result in small formant bandwidths, and, hence, unnatural sounding synthesized vowels.

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