Lecture 13

6 4 2 0 centralization 2 coef 23771236 robust

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Unformatted text preview: 0 Centralization .2 coef = -23.771236, (robust) se = 8.2938038, t = -2.87 Figure 4: Indigenous centralization and adult illiteracy (partial relation controlling for log of GDP/cap in 1970) 38 .4 3 School attainment (1960-1990) 0 1 2 cog lso zmb swz tza gha ken bwa mwi cmr zwe zar sen tgo -1 lbr sle gmb caf mli -.6 rwa uga sdn ner gnb -.4 -.2 0 Centralization ben moz .2 coef = 1.2428953, (robust) se = .48549674, t = 2.56 Figure 5: Indigenous centralization and school attainment (partial relation controlling for log of GDP/cap in 1960) 39 .4 Slavery and Long-Run Development in Africa When we discussed the historical institutions of Africa and some of the puzzles surrounding them we brie‡y talked about slavery. The great economic historian of the Ancient World, Moses Finley, argued that it was slavery that accounted for the technological stasis of ancient Greece. Around 25% of the population were slaves in Attica (the region around Athens) in the 4th century BC (Ian Morris and Barry Powell, 2006, The Greeks, p. 210). In Rome there is even more uncertainly but Harris (2007, “The Late Republic” in The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, p. 527) estimates there were 4-8 million slaves in the later Roman empire. Since the population was about 60 m people, the proportion of slaves might have been around 10%. Slavery was much more extensive in many parts of Africa. We do not have good evidence on many places but by the end of the 19th century, slaves were 30-50% of the population of the Western Sudan and possibly 80% in commercial centers. James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and Historical Analysis9 October 26, 2009 8/ Domestic Slavery and the Slave Trade Though as yet there has been little work on the consequences of slavery within Africa, the pioneering work of Nathan Nunn has examined the impact of the slave trade on African societies. I will now go through his paper in some detail. The main idea is to quantify the impact of the slave trade on African long-run development and ask if parts of Africa which were impacted more by the slave trade are systematically poorer today. The answer appears to be yes. James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and Historical Analysis9 October 26, 2009 9/ ;;; ;;; ;;; ;; Istanbul Rome Lisbon Palermo Seville Ouargla Charleston Tripoli 40% Marzuq Karachi CUBA Aswan GORÉE Island Cartagena Timbuktu A BAR AM A B RUB Ouidah YO ASHANTI A Lagos ARAD Accra NIN BE Elmina Slave Coast Calabar GO AN LO Bahia ing ad BOBANGI KONGO O NDONG Luanda MBUNDU OVIMBUNDU Cabinda Pernambuco 40% Goa Zabid LUND A SOCOTRA Mombassa ZANZIBAR MAKUA Quelimane Tamatave MADAGASCAR Rio de Janeiro 10% Aden ts Pos Tr Cape Verde Islands Mosle m PUERTO RICO Santo Domingo BENIN JAMAICA Basra Alexandria Canary Islands GHANA 10% Venice Genoa ATLANTIC Montevideo Buenos Aires OCEAN Island MAURITIUS RÉUNION Island (Bourbon) Duration of the Slave Trades • Saharan slave trade: from 600ad to 1913. • Red Sea and Indian Ocean trades: from 850ad to 1900. • Atlantic trade: from 1450ad to...
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