Lecture 13 - The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth A...

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The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and Historical Analysis James A. Robinson Harvard October 26, 2009 James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and Historical Analysis October 26, 2009 1 / 9
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Sub-Saharan Africa In the last lecture we discussed the impact of British colonialism on India, contrasting parts of India that had di/erent types of revenue systems (Banerjee and Iyer). We also contrasted the long-run development of British India with the °Princely States±which were ruled indirectly. If you had read the social science literature on indirect ruler you±d be very surprised to discover that such places did better than those which were directly ruled. (Recall that the OLS results of Iyer favor direct rule!). There is an extensive literature on Africa arguing that British style indirect rule had many pernicious e/ects, in particular by recognizing various local rulers as being the ° legitimate±rulers, the British had a large impact on local political structures. Maybe a di/erence in India is that at the time of the creation of princely states, Indian rulers were far more consolidated than African chiefs, so there was less political change. James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and Historical Analysis October 26, 2009 2 / 9
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What was Indirect Rule? According to Frederick Lugard (1922) one of the architects of the system wrote in his book The Dual Mandate in Tropical Africa , The essential feature of the system. . . is that the native chiefs are constituted as an integral part of the machinery of the administration. There are not two sets of rulers° -the British and the native° -working either separately or in co-operation, but a single Government in which the native chiefs have well-de±ned duties and an acknowledged status equally with British o¢ cers. Their duties should never con²ict, and should overlap as little as possible. They should be complementary to each other, and the chief himself must understand that he has no right to place and power unless he renders his proper services to the State (p. 203). James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and Historical Analysis October 26, 2009 3 / 9
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Consequences of Indirect Rule The literature on indirect rule is largely qualitative. However, there is a recent creative attempt at a statistical analysis by Matt Lange (²British Colonial Legacies and Political Development,³ World Development , 2004, Volume 32, 905-922.) He focused on the 33 former British colonies 2 that (a) did not experience large-scale European settlement, (b) had over 100,000 inhabitants at independence, (c) did not merge with non-British colonies after independence, and (d) experienced more than 30 years of formal colonial rule.
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