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Lecture 14

At one point out of 405 elected mps 293 were chosen

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Unformatted text preview: and 42 voters All of these boroughs could elect two MPs. At one point, out of 405 elected MPs, 293 were chosen by fewer than 500 voters each. Meanwhile neither Birmingham nor Manchester had any representation in the House of Commons. Eliminating Sinecures in England Source: Harling, Philip (1996) The Waning of ‘Old Corruption’, Clarendon Press, p. 21. Uncontested Elections in England, 1701-1831 Source: John Cannon (1973) Parliamentary Reform, 1640-1832, Cambridge University Press, pp. 278-279. Reaction in Russia An alternative was to oppose the changes which led to structural change in the …rst place, this happened in a large number of cases. For instance, Alexander Gerschenkron (1970. Europe in the Russian Mirror: Four Lectures in Economic History. New York: Cambridge University Press.) argued that in the case of Austria-Hungary, the state not only failed to promote industrialization, but rather “economic progress began to be viewed with great suspicion and the railroads came to be regarded, not as welcome carriers of...
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