Unformatted text preview: and 42 voters
All of these boroughs could elect two MPs. At one point, out of 405
elected MPs, 293 were chosen by fewer than 500 voters each.
Meanwhile neither Birmingham nor Manchester had any representation
in the House of Commons. Eliminating Sinecures in England Source: Harling, Philip (1996) The Waning of ‘Old Corruption’, Clarendon Press, p. 21. Uncontested Elections in England, 1701-1831 Source: John Cannon (1973) Parliamentary Reform, 1640-1832, Cambridge University Press,
pp. 278-279. Reaction in Russia An alternative was to oppose the changes which led to structural
change in the …rst place, this happened in a large number of cases.
For instance, Alexander Gerschenkron (1970. Europe in the Russian
Mirror: Four Lectures in Economic History. New York: Cambridge
University Press.) argued that in the case of Austria-Hungary, the
state not only failed to promote industrialization, but rather
“economic progress began to be viewed with great suspicion and
the railroads came to be regarded, not as welcome carriers of...
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- Fall '09
- Democracy, per capita, JAMES A. ROBINSON