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Lord lugard estimated the dual mandate in tropical

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Unformatted text preview: ms of transportation. Lord Lugard estimated (The Dual Mandate in Tropical Africa, pp. 462-463) that one train of ‘ average capacity’was equal to 13,000 head carriers and cost one-twentieth as much. However, the bases of these calculations are not clear (they need to include the …xed cost of building the line, rolling stock etc.) I am constructing these numbers properly in ongoing work with Stanley Engerman and Isaías Chaves. James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and5, 2009 October Historical Analysis 10 / 25 Wilks, Ivor (1975) Asante in the Nineteenth Century: The Structure and Evolution Of a Political Order, New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 11. Source: Gould, Peter R. (1959) Transportation in Ghana, Northwestern University, Studies in Geography No.5. p. 25. Ethiopia The one African country we know most about in the medieval and early modern periods is Ethiopia (they had writing). Christopher Ehret has argued (using linguistic evidence) that agriculture in Ethiopia is as ancient as anywhere in the world. The modern country of Ethiopia developed from the Kingdom of Aksum which was founded in the north around 400BC. Aksum traded with India, Arabia, Greece and the Roman Empire. The King of Aksum Ezana converted to Christianity in the …rst half of the 4th century AD, more or less about the same time as Constantine converted (312AD). Fascinatingly, the historical decline of Aksum followed a pattern close to that of Europe. Pirenne argued (Mohammed and Charlamagne ) that it was expansion of the Arabs in the 7th century not the collapse of the Western Roman Empire which caused the Dark Ages. This same expansion took away Aksum’ trade routes and led to s decline (de-monetization) and a re-focusing of the state into the interior. James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and5, 2009 October Historical Analysis 11 / 25 Aksum Gondar The Stelae Park in Axum Emperor Fasilidas’ Castle in Gondar Aksumite coins indicating the conversion of King Ezana Feudalism in Africa Just as feudalism emerged out of the Dark Ages and the collapse of central state authority in Europe, the same...
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