What eect does the plough have it increases the area

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Unformatted text preview: absence of the plow (plough) and wheel south of the Sahara except for Ethiopia. “What e¤ect does the plough have? ... it increases the area of land a man can cultivate and hence makes possible a substantial rise in productivity .. This in turn means a greater surplus for the maintenance of spet crafts, for the growth of di¤erences in wealth and in styles of life, for developments in urban ... life. .. it stimulates the move to …xed holdings and away from shifting agriculture .. it increases the value of arable land.” Goody (1971, p. 25). Absence of wheel meant Africans could not make use of animal power and also further reduced agricultural productivity - wheel used in irrigation. Note fact that you don’ use wheel in irrigation can’ be explained by t t tse-tse ‡y. James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and5, 2009 October Historical Analysis 19 / 25 Wealth in Things or People? Goody points out that low population density meant that land was not scarce and this led to slavery. “Politically, chiefship tended to be over people rather than land” (Goody, 1971, p. 30). He distinguishes slavery from serfdom “In slavery, labour is controlled by political force; in serfdom, economic controls, such as land tenure, are of equal importance. It is highly signi…cant that only in Ethiopia, which had the plough, was there any landlordism in Africa; here in true medieval fashion, estates in land supported a nobility that …lled the important o¢ ces of state ... If you have landlords, you can also have tenants and serfs; unfree tenancies mean little unless land is highly valued and your peasantry has nowhere to go.” (Goody, 1971, pp. 30-31). James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and5, 2009 October Historical Analysis 20 / 25 Social Structure Lack of plow, absence of wheel, low population density, not well de…ned rights in land and no landlords meant that social structure was far less di¤erentiated than in Europe. Inequality wa...
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