71 humidity p value 098 017 087 032 yellow fever 082

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Unformatted text preview: y (p-value) 0.98 (0.17) 0.87 (0.32) Yellow Fever 0.82 (0.22) -0.014 (0.07) 62 63 [0.64] Malaria -0.28 (0.59) Life Expectancy Number of Observations 1.18 (0.84) 63 63 62 The Role of Geography No causal e¤ect of geography. How do we think of the correlation between geography (e.g., latitude) and income? This is caused by omitted factors; Geography correlated with institutions because of the natural experiment of European colonialism. Tropical areas ended up with worse institutions, because they tended to be richer and more densely-populated circa 1500. They attracted fewer European settlers. Also no universal causal e¤ect of geography on institutions. Relationship created in a particular historical juncture. James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and9, 2009 September Historical Analysis 23 / 24 More on Geography - The Reversal of Fortune Further evidence against geographical hypotheses comes from the ‘ Reversal of Fortune’ . Colonies which were relatively rich in 1500, prior to the period of European colonization, are now relatively poor. No simple relationship between latitude or tropical location and prosperity, no simple geography hypothesis. Maybe a sophisticated geography hypothesis, whereby geography interacts with other factors like technology. An example would be: latitude speci…c technology (Diamond, 1997, Australia vs. Papua New Guinea), but most plausible with respect to agricultural technology (is manufacturing latitude speci…c?), but the Great Divergence is not about agriculture. James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and9, 2009 September Historical Analysis 24 / 24 Reversal since 1500 (1) . USA 10 CAN AUS SGP HKG GDP per capita, PPP, in 1995 NZL CHL 9 ARG VEN URY BRA 8 PAN CRI BLZ GTM DOM PRY MEX MYS COL JAM PHL ECU PER TUN DZA IDN MAR SLV GUY BOL EGY LKA HND NIC VNM HTI PAK IND LAO 7 BGD 0 5 10 Urbanization in 1500 15 20 Reversal since 1500 (2) . CAN AUS 10 USA SGP HKG GDP per capita, PPP, in 1995 NZL CHL ARG URY BWA BRA 9 VEN ZAF GAB KNA MYS PAN COL TTO CRI 8 PRY SWZ CPV MEX LCA GRD ECU PER BLZ DOM DMA VCT GTM NAM SUR GUY BHS BRB BOL ZWE PHL SLV AGO HND NIC CMR COG LSO DZA JAM IDN MAR EGY LKA GIN CIV MRTGHA SEN COM GMB VNM TGO CAF HTILAO KEN BEN 7 TUN TCD ZAR ZMB MDG NER ERI MLI MWI MOZ BFA NGA TZA UGA SDN PAK IND NPL BGD SLE BDI RWA 6 -5 0 Log Population Density in 1500 5...
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This document was uploaded on 02/28/2014 for the course ECON 2328 at Harvard.

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