In the north in contrast self governing free cities

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Unformatted text preview: Italian society. In particular the Norman invasion of the South in the 11th and 12th century and the imposition of feudalism created a very di¤erent society there. In the North, in contrast self-governing free cities and communes emerged. James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and Historical Analysis September 16, 2008 14 / 24 Mean Budget Delay (in days)1979-1985 50 100 150 200 Calabria Campania Marche Emilia-Rom Lazio Liguria Toscana Umbria Puglia Sardegna Abruzzi Lombardia Basilicata Sicilia Molise Piemonte Trentino-Alto A 0 Valle dAosta Veneto Friuli-Ven G 0 5000 10000 Inhabitants per cultural or recreational assn 15000 80 Innovative Laws (1978-83) Mean Score 20 40 60 Emilia-Rom Piemonte Lombardia Liguria Toscana Umbria Abruzzi Veneto Pug lia Basil icata Marche Lazio Molise Campania 0 Calabria 0 5000 10000 Inhabitants per cultural or recreational assn 15000 2 Bureaucratic Contact Quality Factan Index -1 0 1 Val le dAosta Emilia-Rom Friuli-Ven G Trentino-Alto A Umbria Veneto LiguriaToscana Lazio Marche Pug lia Molise Lombardia Abruzzi Basil icata Piemonte Sicilia Calabria Campania -2 Sard eg na 0 5000 10000 Inhabitants per cultural or recreational assn 15000 Campa ni a Marche Puglia Sardegna Emilia-Rom Lazio Abruzzi Basilicata LoLi gu ria mbardia Toscana Molise Umbria Sicilia Piemonte Tren tino-Alto A Veneto Friuli-Ven G Valle dAosta 0 Mean Budget Delay (in days)1979-1985 50 100 150 200 Calabria 20 40 60 80 Preference votes as share of possible preference votes 1976 100 80 Innovative Laws (1978-83) Mean Score 20 40 60 Emilia-Rom Piemonte Lo mbardia Li gu ria Toscana Umbria Abruzzi Veneto Puglia Basilicata Marche Molise Lazio Campa ni a 0 Calabria 20 40 60 80 Preference votes as share of possible preference votes 1976 100 2 Emilia-Rom Friuli-Ven G Tren tino-Alto A Veneto Umbria Molise Puglia Toscana Lazio Li gu ria Marche Lo mbardia Abruzzi Basilicata Piemonte Sicilia Calabria Campa ni a Sardegna -2 Bureaucratic Contact Quality Factan Index -1 0 1 Valle dAosta 20 40 60 80 Preference votes as share of possible preference votes 1976 100 Testing Ban…eld/Putnam A recent paper by Guiso, Sapienza and Zingales (2008) tries to test the hypothesis that variation in social capital in Italy today can be explained by the historical political organization of the country. They identify the 400 largest cities in the North from the 1861 census and using the size of the smallest as the lower bound construct a sample of 286 in the South. Then they use historical sources to identify which were free cities, or communes at two dates in the middle ages, 1167 and 1300. These could not form in the Norman ruled South, and they did not form everywhere in the North. There were 71 communes/free cities in total. They propose several sources of variation: (1) Trade potential, measured by coastal location and whether or not the city was at the crossroads of two Roman Roads, (2) whether the city was the seat of a Bishop in 1,000, (3) Strategic location which is proxied by whether or not the town had Etruscan roots James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and Historical Analysis September 16, 2008 15 / 24 Figure 1 – Hist...
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