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Lecture 4 - The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth A...

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The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and Historical Analysis Lecture 4 James A. Robinson Harvard September 16, 2008 James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and Historical Analysis September 16, 2008 1 / 24
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Thinking more about Culture In the last lecture we discussed some empirical evidence where culture was related to religious a¢ liation, certain nations (°British culture±or °Hispanic culture±), or certain regions of the world (°European culture±). There are other sources of information on culture however which may provide better evidence on whether or not culture is important for economic growth. In his paper ²Culture and Institutions: Economic Development in the Regions of Europe³ focuses on variation in income per-capita within western Europe using data on regions. There are large di/erences in per-capita income between European regions with the richest parts, such as the Parisian basin, northern Italy, being about 4 times richer than the poorest parts, such as Andalucia, Galicia or Sicily. James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and Historical Analysis September 16, 2008 2 / 24
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Empirical Approach Guido Tabellini applies the Acemoglu-Johnson-Robinson approach with culture replacing institutions. Second stage: Income per-capita=f(culture) First stage: culture=g(?) Want to take seriously the idea that culture is endogenous and try to develop an explanation of cultural variation in Europe. James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and Historical Analysis September 16, 2008 3 / 24
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Measuring Culture #1 Data from the World Value Survey allow one to look at various aspects of what one might think of as culture. First trust: ²would you say that most people can be trusted or that you can±t be too careful in dealing with people? Trust is measured by the proportion of people who answer ²Most people can be trusted.³ Other possible answers are ²Can±t be too careful³ and ²don±t know³. James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and Historical Analysis September 16, 2008 4 / 24
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Measuring Culture #2 To what extent does individual e/ort pay o/ in society? The question is ²Some people feel they have completely free choice and control over their lives while other people feel that what we do has no real e/ect on what happens to them.³People respond on a 10 point scale, 1 means ²none at all³ 10 is ²great deal.³ This gives the variable control . James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and Historical Analysis September 16, 2008 5 / 24
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Measuring Culture #3 Next is an attempt to measure ²generalized versus limited morality.³ Generalized morality is measured by the variable respect which is the proportion of people who choose ²tolerance and respect for other people³ from a list of qualities they would like their children to have (others include ²good manners, obedience, thrift, religious faith, unsel´shness³).
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