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Unformatted text preview: at for only three weeks, they
refused to talk about taxes but aired many grievances until Charles
The Scots realized that Charles did not have the support of the
nation and invaded, occupying Newcastle. Charles opened
negotiations and the Scots demanded that parliament be involved.
This induced Charles to call what was to be the Long Parliament
which continued to sit until 1649.
In 1642 the Civil War broke out …nally leading to the defeat and
execution of Charles in 1649.
The monarchy was restored in 1660, but similar con‡icts emerged,
particularly under James II, culminating in the Glorious Revolution of
1688. James was deposed by parliament and William of Orange
brought over to be king.
James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and30, 2009 Analysis: L
6 / 29 Institutional Changes The Glorious Revolution led to some key institutional changes.
Parliaments met regularly for the …rst time.
Parliament reasserted its prerogatives over taxation and introduced
auditing of expenditures by the king.
Abolition of prerogative courts, and by the Act of Settlement in 1701
judges became more independent (they could not be replaced by the
Taken together these represent the triumph of parliament over the
king. Indeed, parliament o¤ered the crown to William of Orange and
subsequently in 1714 a Hanovarian who could not speak English
(George I). James A. Robinson (Harvard) The Emergence of Modern Economic Growth: A Comparative and30, 2009 Analysis: L
7 / 29 Policy Changes
The Glorious Revolution led to some key policy changes as well. The
way to think about all of these is that the Whigs who triumphed in
1688 wanted explicitly to promote ‘
manufactures’and many of them
were heavily invested in nascent industrial enterprises.
It led to the abolition of the ‘
hearth tax’which had to be paid
annually for each hearth and which economic historians have argued
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This document was uploaded on 02/28/2014 for the course ECON 2328 at Harvard.
- Fall '09