BIO 40 Fall - 2003 FINAL EXAM

BIO 40 Fall - 2003 FINAL EXAM - *NO Wflémay RNAL NAM] —...

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Unformatted text preview: *NO Wflémay RNAL NAM] — MBTERMEXAM BIOLOGY 4O FALL 2003 THE EXAM HAS FIVE DOUBLE SIDED PAGES THERE ARE 100 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS - FOR THE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS - PICK THE BEST POSSIBLE ANSWER — BE SURE TO PUT THE COLOR OF YOUR EXAM ON THE SCANTRON ' YOUNG 50 3PM CLASS 4" 12. Which arm(s) of the immune response isfare directed against INTRAcellular antigens? a. B cells [ET cells c red blood cells d. Langerhan cells e. all of the above 13. The reason that combinations of drugs are more effective than any single drug is because the probability of finding a single virus resistant to the combination is zero. a. true l b. lfalse ’9 14. Which HIV gene was put into a mouse, which in turn caused dementia in the mouse? a. P0] b. GAGQENV d. REV e. TAT 15. When our body recoonizes somethino as non-self, it is called a(n): f y a :- a. epitope b. antigen c. free virus d all of the above e. both a + b y 16. The surrogate markers used to measure the efficacy of potential therapies include the viral load and a. the level of the immune response against HIV b. the number of budding HIV 0. the level of reverse transcriptase activityEInumber of CD-4 lymphocytes e. a + d 17. The probability of being infected by having receptive anal intercourse, once with an HIV infected individual, is estimated to be: a. 1 b. li10| c. [1/100 d. 1500 e. l/lOOOO 4r ’ 8. The region of the antibody that binds to the epitope is called? idiotype b. anti-idiotype c. translate d. antigen e. opsitope 19. Which arm of the immune response requires INDIRECT help from CD—4 lymphocytes a. cell mediated b. CD-4 c. Humerol CD—8 e. macrophages ,r a. e “pipeline” b . pre—clinical trials 0. Phase I clinical trials 20. gljrhugs that are still being tested are considered to be in . Phase 2 clinical trials e. the placebo test IE1,21. Cellular “eating” is called: a. pinocytosis b. brunch c. gourmandizing @phagocytosis e. opsonization 22. What phase of vaccine trials is involved in monitoring the immunogenicity of potential vaccines? 3. animal studies b. I ©phase II (1. phase III e. Phase IV <2; Which of the following lymphocytes binds the antigen directly? a. B cells b. T — cells c. CD—8 cells cl. CD - 4 cells e. a+ b 32. If the individual was successfully treated with the “cocktail” at point 4 what would %' happen to curve “c”. a it will go up it will go down c. it will continue in the same direction 33. According to Dr. Bohman which of the followin drugs were “rationally” designed: a. aspirin b. AZT c. pentamadine d. DES ~e protease inhibitors 34. AZT is “targeted” to which stage of the HIV life cycle? K a. binding b. internalization ®reverse transcription (1. assembly e. transcription @ In which stage if the “pipeline” is the LD-SO, for HIV, determined? a. “in vitro” b. animal studies c. phase I d. phase II c. c + d 36. If the probability off finding a virus resistant to drug A is 1 X 10 ‘5 and the probability of finding a virus resistant to drug B is 1 X 10 ‘5. What is the probability of finding a single virus resistant to both A + B? a.lX10“‘ b.1X10'8 @anx 1X103 d.1X10*5+1X10'8 e. none of the above 37. The federal law that makes it illegal to discriminate against individuals with AIDS is: 33? a. The AIDS Antidiscrimination Act 6? The Americans with Disabilities Act e. The Ryan White Act d. The Rock Hudson Act - e. The Universal Precaution Authorization # 38. Inbred strains of mice are used to test the efficacy of new drugs. @true b. false 39. Which federal governmental agency is involved in regulating the release of new I drugs? a. EPA b. theCDC c. theNIH @theFDA e. a+d 40. A hormone secreted by a l mphocyte is called a (n): a. chemokine b. opsokine @lymphokine d. antibody e. GP—120 41. In which stage of drug testing is informed consent required? a._ Phasel b. Phase II 92 “in vitro’ (1. a + c e. a + b @ Which of the following program(s) were/was initiated to shorten the time required to test new drugs in America? a. the Placebo Act b. the Compassionate Plea Program c. the Americans with Disabilities Act d. a + b e. a + c 43. In the State of California HIV testing is mandatory for all blood donors. a. true false 57. The genetic aterial of HIV is? a. DNA 'b. RNA c. protein d. nucleotides e. amino acids @ Phylogenetic trees for retroviruses were created by comparing sequence homologies of: a. lipids b. DNA c. protein d. polysaccharides e. a+b @Western medicine, in America, has undergone a transition from acute and cheap to chronic and expensive in the 1950’s. a. true b. false 60. According to Dr. Bohman, what percentage of healthcare workers take care of 90% fl’ of the patients with HIV or AIDS? a. 5% (910%. c. 20% d. 30% e. 40% 61. Currently what fraction of the Gross National Product is spent on healthcare related matters? I a. 1% b. 5% @8% d. 50% e. 100% 62. Physicians were initially afraid of HIV because it was transmitted in a similar fashion to: ' a. TB b. syphilis c. small pox @mpatitis e. malaria 63. Who wrote the book, “And The Band Played On”? .47 a. c. Snow 1). M. Gottlieb c. B. Gallo d. Dr. Acre 69R. Shilts (69 Antibodies and antigens interact with each other on the basis of complementary shape. a. true b. false a Who was the Surgeon General that sent an AIDS pamphlet to every household in America? 9? Elton John Ryan White c. CEKoop A. R. Reagan e. A. Ashe £766. HIV is capable of infecting brain cells (other than 'neurons)? 6:) true b. false NOT I; mm was 67. Which of the following bodily fluids puts you at the greatest risk for exposure to HIV é a. pre«curn b. semen c. saliva @blood e. breast milk uring the internalization process of HIV, which of the following are internalized? a. GP-120 b. core proteins c. reverse transcriptase (1. RNA e. c + d ‘ @ Re-emerging diSeases are a problem because of the inappropriate over use of antibiotics - a. true b. false @ Mutations are caused by changes in the amino acid sequence in proteins. Q) true b. false Who is/are the father (s) of the Germ Theory? a. P. Ehrlich b. L. Pasture c. R. Koch d. all of the above e. b+c ? 82. The ratio of men to women with AIDS in the world is. a. 80/20 b. 75/25 (3)5050 (1.20/80 e. 25/75 @ Health care workers are taught to treat all patients like they are infected with HIV. a. true b. false 7 84. Who is credited with the creation of phylogenetic trees? K2y'Darwin b. Gallo c. R. Koch d. R. Bohman e. a + c 85 . What type of scientist would carry out a statistical characterization of the AIDS epidemic? - a. engineer epidemiologist c. politician (1. molecular biologist e. immunologist @ Using the graph below , what is the LD-SO for the drug being tested? a. 1mg b. 5mg 0. 10 mg d. 25 mg c. it is impossible to calculate .— g 3‘ Cl ' co‘wcm+W‘-LW“ 8’7. If you use a latex condom you should use water based lubricants. ® true b. false 88. The surrogate markers used to measure the efficacy of potential therapies include the viral load and 56b 3. the level of the immune response against HIV b. the number of budding HIV c. the level of reverse transcriptase activity @umber of CD4 lymphocytes e. a + d 89. I-HV cannot be spread by casual contact. é itrue b. false KJ 44. The most important clinical manifestatiou of HIV infection is the gradual diminution OLICD — 4 + lymphocytes: r a. true b. false 45. Many people with terminal illnesses are turning away from traditional western k ,medicine to alternative therapies (29 true b. false 46. When placebos are used in phase II clinical trials, today, patients in this group are iven the best available treatment against the disease. :a. true b. false 47. Accordin to Dr. Bohman alternative therapies are often based on correlative data. a. true @false 48. Accordino to Dr. Bohman a disease is best defined as a deviation-from normalcy. a. true @faJSB Whal- 15 henna}. 'I 49. Which of the following time periods include the Golden Age of MOLECULAR BIOLOGY? 3. 1850—1900 b. 1900-1920 c. 1900—1940 d. 1940-1950@1950—? 50. Professor Duesberg, from Cal, believes that taking AZT can cause AIDS. .5 - true b. false J 51. Insect bites are a major means of spreading HIV. A. TRUE® FALSE Zn Which of the following is/are direct mechanisms that allows HIV to kill CID-4+ lymphocytes? ' a. opsonization by antibodies b the formation of a syncitium c. lysis d. killing by the appropriate CD8 cell e. c + d 53. Vertical transmission of HIV is impossible because the placenta protects the fetus from the mothers circulatory system. a. true (E? false Current thought about Kaposi’s Sarcoma is that it is caused by a virus and thus is another example of an opportunistic infection. a. true b. false 55. Who isfare the father(s) of epidemiology? & a. Ehrlich b. Pasture c. Koch (1. Snow @ b+c @ In America the life expectancy ha increased by years since 1900. a. true b. false 24. Which of the following is/are involved in monitoring the research to determine the efficacy and tolerability of new drugs the Food an Drug Administration b. The Environmental Protection Agency c. the pharmaceutical industry d. the Surgeon General's office e. b + c 25. Which of the following programs was initiated by David Kessler to shorten the time to test drugs? a. the pipeline cleaner b. the placebo exchange the Compassionate Plea Program d. the Ryan White Act e. The American‘s with Disabilities Act ' ¢ 26. CD—4 cells “help” CD-S'cell maturation by secreting. a. RNA b. DNA glymphokines d. lipids e. perforin 27. When a naive lymphocyte encounters the appropriate antigen it will undergo: a. opsonization b. cell division c. maturation d. all of the above e. only b + c @ During the early stages of the AIDS epidemic pharmaceutical companies made drugs against. a. opportunistic infections b. nausea c. head aches d. cancer e. anemia 29 According to Dr. Bohman iS the best way to avoid sexually transmitted diseases. _ abstinence b. condoms c. spermicidal jellies d. vaginal foams e. aspirin Below is a graphical representation of the typical clinical course of an untreated HIV infection. Use the data presented in the figure to answer the next three questions. 30} When would a preventative vaccine be given? Ar ;_ a9 prior to point 1 b. at point 1 c. at point 2 d. at point 3 e. at point 4 \.- 31. What is the variable measured along the “X’ axis? "' 3. amount b. the viral load c. body temperature @time e. the T-4 lymphocyte count 1. On average it cost a pharmaceutical company to test a drug in order to get FDA approval. ’ a. 1 billion dollars @200 million' 0. 2 million d. 10 million e. 200,000 2. AZT is targeted to which component if the HIV life cycle? a. DNA replicationeverse transcription c. RNA synthesis d. protein syntheses e. a+ b 3. The scientific community believes that HIV jumped from non-human primates to humans about: } a. 10 years ago [E150 - 200 years ago c. 1000 years ago d. 1 million years ago e. it went the other way 4. Vaccines are primarily dependent on: a. clonal amplification b. differentiation 0. reverse transcriptionidjmemory ‘31 e. none of the above 5. In what year did we start screening the blood supply for antibodies against HIV? 1 a. 1970 b. 19801:.) 1985 d. 1995 c. it is not screened as described 6.. According to Dr. Wilson, “You cannot have a heterosexual AIDS epidemic in a ,1 country in which women have power or close to equality”. Ea. Itrue b. false '7. The prevailing theory of what causes Kaposi’s Sarcoma is? a. the suppression of the immune responseIELa herpes virus I? c. infection of the tumor cells by HIV d. cigarette smoking after sex e. all of the above 8. HIV can be inactivated by a dilute detergent Solution. 14/ Educ b. false 9. Needle exchange programs are an attempt to eliminate which of the following ’5’ ex osure categories. _ a. IV drug use b. health care workers c. pediatric d. all of the above e. a + b 10. The fastest growing group of new AIDS cases is: f4 a. heterosexual white women] bl heterosexual black women c. IV drug users d. pediatric. e. a+b 11. In one conspiratorial theory on the origin of HIV, it is believed to be made by an Egyptian pharaoh called. a. Bohman b._ Nebakanezzarah c. RaE Tut e. Isis @ Horizontal transmission can occur with which of the followin types of diseases? .fif a. casual b. by a vector c. sexual d. all of the above both a + c 91. Since the beginning of the epidemics, how many health care workers have been infected with HIV by their patients? a. 0 03 under 100 0. 5000 d. 10,000 e. 700,000 @ A successful would require that all strains of HIV share a common epitope. a. true b. false ‘ G? INFECTED INFANTS CAN TRANSMIT HIV TO THEIR SURROGATE MOTHERS BY BREAST FEEDING. a. true b. false When a retrovirus leaves a cell, it is called? a. binding b. budding c. tropism’s d. lysogeny e. transformation @ WHAT DRUG THAT CAUSED BIRTH DEFECTS IN PREGNANT MOTHERS CHANGED OUR ATTITUDES ABOUT DRUG TESTING IN AMERICA? 2, AZT @1353 c. INSULIN d. aspirin e. pentarnidine @ According to Dr. Bohman, President Reagan’s policy with respect to the AIDS epidemic was to ignore it. a. true b. false 97. Which of the following scientists do(es) not believe that HIV causes AIDS. I?" a. R Bohman b R. Galloéj. Duesberg d. L. Montagnier e. a + c 7% Per death which of the following gets the most research money from the NIH? , a. cancer b. heart disease c. stroke d. MAD Cows disease e. AIDS (99 Which American president forced the pharmaceutical companies to produce a vaccine aainst the Spanish flu strain of the flu? 3. Carter Ford c. Nixon d. Bush e. Clinton v 100. Which clinic was most likely to discuss their personal drug regimens? a. GLIDE ."”E“.\Being Alive c. the Boy Scouts d. none of the above 69.. Which of the following federal agencies was the first to respond to the AIDS epidemic? a. the NIH b. the FDA c. the Surgeon General’s Office 0 the CDC e. the presidents cabinet 0. What did Bob Gallo call the virus he thought caused AIDS? a. IAV b. I-IIVI (1. HIV II (1. HTLVI e. HTLV III 71. If two different risk exposure occurs to the same individual which of the following probability rules applies to determine the probability of the individual becoming A/ infected? additive b. multiplicative c. division d. exponential e. subtraction @Which governrmntal agency does basic research on the cure and causes of disease? a. the NIH b. the CDC c. the WHO d. UCLA e. the FDA @ Which type of epithelium is more protective against I-HV infection. a. columnar epithelia from the intestine b. stratified epithelia from a young woman’s vagina c. stratified epithelia from an older woman’s vagina d. they are all the same e. b + c are the same . 74. Receptive anal intercourse IS a h1gher I‘lSk exposure to HIV than receptive vaginal intercourse. @ true b. false 75. Recent data indicated that there is a positive correlation between the use of recreational drugs and infection by HIV in college age students. (a). trure b. false 76. What is/are the potential mechanisms whereby HIV jumped from monkeys to humans? a. testicular implants b. sexual rituals practiced in Africa c. the polio vaccination program in Africa d. bestiality all of the above Which of the following modes of HIV transmission have been virtually eliminated in America? a, blood transfusions b. Factor 8 infusions into hemophiliacs c. perinatal transmission d. all of the above e. only a + c 78. During intercourse which of the following fluids could put an individual at risk for HIV exposure? 73 a. pre—cum b. vaginal secretions c. semen® all of the above e. only b + c ...
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BIO 40 Fall - 2003 FINAL EXAM - *NO Wflémay RNAL NAM] —...

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