ART HIS 56A Fall - 2005 Final Study Guide

ART HIS 56A Fall - 2005 Final Study Guide - Art History...

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Unformatted text preview: Art History Final Study Guide l>Popular Western perceptions: inaccurate, sensationalized, and ne gative View of India and their religions Contribute to our understandings: Mitter’s book says that scholars r vho wrote the first histories about India essentially formed our false idea about it; Disr eyland’s Temple of Doom (death, magic, sorcerers, voodoo, villainy, starving peasants, strange language, odd and repulsive food, wild-haired scary shaman, affluent palaces], Shiva underwear ad, India Jones and the Temple of Doom, Karma Sutra, Indian Food, y( nga; Means that perceptions were created: According to readings-reason; scholars study it: Tourism impact on formulating perceptions: second most widely av ailable and most popular way to familiarize ourselves with Indian culture and art; Cr me’s Picturesque India: A Handbook for European Travelers tells travelers to go to India because it was seen by Europeans in the late 19‘h century as picturesque because of its old ruins, wild landscapes, exotic and colorfiil people. It was Europeans’ reaction a gainst classicism; Ichaporia tells of Khajuraho as a major cite for its erotic art because people after the sexual revolution of the 1960s were attracted to it. He says that “it c ould be sexual Eden in the landof the Kama Sutra, spiritual, sensitive, romantic India, whose past has so much to teach the materialistic, spurious West.” Role of musemns in contributing to perceptions: Third ways to learn about India, but very few people go to museums, let alone the Indian exhibits; education our primary protection for false perceptions It is the most trustworthy way towar is understanding in our society. Popular Culture and media: easiest and most common form of perce iving India; we have vague stereotypes, that movies inaccurately reconfirm. To some extn :nt we accept the movies are a truthful representation of India. Monuments: Temples at Khajuraho: religious, cultural, and sexual tourism; Tourj st Office restored, beautified, and built airport and hotels near it; Miller thinks that it is aesthetic and Indian History and religion is revealed and that one must put one’s self in Iidian pov. Taj Mahal: seen as perfection; enormous love for a wife; romantic 5' Dry during romantisicm movement; most famous monument, but though of as palace instead of mausoleum; liked by British because white, Romanesque, has similar architecture, lack of religious icons and at least Islam is monotheistic, seen as lots of r ioney, effort, time put into it; Johnnie walker’s alcohol comparison, idealistic tourist s] not; Bamiyan Buddhas: symbol of Buddhism and Afghanistan; destroyed by Taliban so famous; venerated for its monumental size and historical meaning, I ot worshipped because Buddhism died out and now it is Islam, Bombudur: complex Buddhist site with lots of Stupas and Buddhas, path to spiritual enhancement, Emerald Buddha: symbol of secular and religious power in one, we lon’t understand how such a small image could be so venerated; like it because gem and g 31d; 2>Compare and contrast Buddhism (Borobudur), Hinduism (Khajur aho), and Islam (Fat hpur Slkl‘l) \ p Hovxis space organized: , C (v ((A M a la- Te av: :h ‘0 -~ ‘ I I 'r , w- & ~ V‘uu‘WPV‘wch \mllVl ‘ , \Q . . . , a s efferent 3 galalifiwm WWW”? Joli/[fr made animal: How are people supposed to move through the space: Why: Purpose of spaces: How is art used: Plan and decoration produce meaning by: A) Borobudur: complex organization; built over a small hill, foot covering rarma reliefs, four walled galleries and then three circular raised terraces with a pyramid on top, enter through four directional stairways; four galleries with no roof that u take up the “steps” of the pyramid, there are balustrades that are high even so cannot see 2 nyone below or above; further up are the three terraces and the Stupa; on the circula r terraces are a total of 72 perforated Stupas with a Buddha image in each; at the top is a large central Stupa with an unfinished Buddha in earth touching gesture which is now on the ground outside; Supposed to circumambulate through the four galleries and :lt four different levels; from the fourth gallery you walk out into an area on which the three curricular terraces and the top of the Stupa are located that you can see all at 0 me; and move up because getting closer to heavens spiritually and literally; Decorating the galleries are Buddha images in niches and m niature Stupas; there are 5 balustrades decorated with Buddha images and Stupas; 160 rel ief panels that describe the result’s of a person’s actions (karma); cause and effect reliefs show the fitting consequence of bad action and all good actions result with a wealthy, healthy, long life; reliefs are literal picture of text; in four galleries scenes from B' rddha’s life (J ataka), and the story of Sudhana, a merchant’s son who undertakes a search for spiritual wisdom; Buddhas and Stupas are another category: both decorate the outside of the balustrades and can be seen from inside the monument; Buddhas are set in nich: :s on five levels; East(earth touching); south (boon giving); west (meditation); North [fear not); 92 of earth Buddha in a different direction; on the top are 64 Buddhas in exposition gesture; 72 perforated Stupas with Buddhas in the turning of the wheel gesture, these Buddhas are partially seen; Buddha in central and closed Stupa in unfinished cart h touching gesture, it represents the ultimate statement of the spiritual realization; 1,472 S tupas; 505 Buddhas; the perforated Stupas go from diamonds to squares and the closed S1 upa is a circle(symbol of perfection); 2 lower terraces are squares with round ed edges, then top one is perfectly circular showing the refinement of perfection in geo. netiic shapes; Purpose:foot c0vers them for structural need to support the c wing in monument and for the conceptual idea of stepping on the worldly reliefs and Ice ving them behind as one ascends to the heavenly top; one literally moves up through the stages of spiritual refinement; Plan: complex, very structured; panels are all uniform in sine e den made up of the same stone blocks; juncture of the stone blocks creates a horizontal line where the heads are arranged; uniformity of organization; regularity of depictions in the Sudhana reliefs because barely change except for subtle details B)Khajuraho_: Focus on trantric sex of Hindu ritual because created in time( 10-1 1 century) in Buddhism and Hinduism trantric practices were popular; opposite oi orthodox because indulges in all senses, rather than cutting them off; metaphor for sexual intercourse is rapture of union between divine and devotee Meant to be circumambulated On a high plinth the Temple consists of a cell for a linga wit h 3 pillared porches in line in front; tall towers; it reflects a piled-up mountain with a na .TOW interior, one that leads in increasing darkness toward the womb chamber with the lin; ga; the imagery is that of a cave within a mountain (similar to Mamallapurarn and Aj anta); the Northern type of tower is round in profile with a stress on the vertical. Also the attachment of smaller split towers to the central tower in an additive technique. Most obvious characteristic is its decorations inside and out of deities who are no specifically identifi able, but just mostly females in exaggerated postures; there are so many that they create :1 texture to the temple’s surface, a pattern of movement produced by the light and shadow of the brilliant Indian sun; Dedicated to Shiva Meant to be considered a mountain, specifically the mounta: n residence of Shiva that is also the central axis of the course; the linga/pillar/tower/mou ntain/axis symbolism is important; C) Fatehpur Sikri: Built in red sandstone around 1571 by Akbar because he an Islamic mystic predicted the birth of his son, Jahangir, when he was 28 years old a1 1d without a son; he decided to build a completely new city in the mystic’s honor near h s monastery at Sikri; they was a large open courtyard for group prayer and an elaborate p alace complex. The reason it was built: to celebrate the birth of Jahangir and because A {bar was ambitious in expanding his power; Akbar lived in the city; it is a virtual museum of the art and aarchitecture of that period because it was untouched afier Akbar 1e ft Visitors enter through a HUGE gateway of the typical red sandstone with white marble decoration into the large courtyard; Western side faces Mec :a and there is an open prayer hall there; on northern side there is a small white tomb with elaborately craved stone screens; the tomb is visited even today by women (Hindu and Muslim) asking for children; Large plaza used for Friday prayer was a public area; the rest of most of the city was palace complex and thus restricted to Akbar and his court; the was a harem for his 5000 women; and his personal residence; also large stone courtyard s, pavilions, fountains, and pools; The palace buildings have an unusual playfulness; water p0: ids for purity; open space, simple, no icons, only patterns— geometric shapes and flowei 5, location of praying does not matter; Akbar’s audience hall; appears two storied, but inside it has a central pillar that suggests a platform of throne; Akbar would sit on the central platfo rm while holding audience with petitioners sitting on the balconies or on the ground :loor; symbolism of this arrangement is clear and shows influences form Hindu 005111011ng and religion; Akbar literally sits at the center of the universe on the world axis, his four advisers radiating to the four cardinal directions; Akbar’s elevated position may suggest his placement between heaven and earth; the scale of some of the pale ce buildings is really small; Symbolism and meaning of Borobudur: How is space organized: How does this suggest its use: mediation on these deities; intended ' 0 bring the devotee to Buddha and Buddha to the devotee; the devotee is like Sudhana wh 3 is on a quest for spiritual truth; each individual must begin by working himself up ,5 arting from this world of desires, then circurnambulating the monument, carefiilly s1udying and for mediating on each relief, in which he retraces the steps of Sakyamu ii; lower gallery is circumarnbulated 4x because there are 4 rows of reliefs, the sequent :e end with Sakyarnuni’s first sermon; devotee must then trace the steps of Sud lana leading to his own vow of Bodisattvahood; as one descends the monument more and more of the Buddhas are visible; there are more numbers of them and the Stupa; enclosing them show more of them What is argument and meaning of reliefs: Where are Buddhas placed and in what arrangement: Buddhas in th e perforated Stupas, and the balustrades manifest himself for the benefit of the devotee on earth How it is a mandala: as a cosmic diagram, used to arrange a multitt .de of deities, especially for the purpose of mediation on these deities A Stupa: can not enter it, like a Stupa; but no relic discovered yet; lots of Stupas as decoration A mountain: cosmic mountain Meru; it is made up partially of a ste pped pyramid that represents a mountain Similarities and differences with other Buddhist sites and Hindu mi )nurnents(Sanchi and Khajuraho): How does time, History, patronage, Audience Affect visual depiction of art? Vessantra J ataka and Great Departure(east gate) fi'om Sanchi Stupa 1: lAD, transforming Pan-Indian symbols into purely Buddhist; patronage done by uncor ntable laypeople so the organization is unstructured possibility due to people wanted to pay for the relief they liked the most; they did this for merit in their next lives; Buddha in human form in J atakas, but not in human form in Great Departure where he is seer as a footprint, flywhisk, umbrella, and Stupa; Jatakas show his limitless charity; :latakas have multiple scenes embedded in the same artistic (continuous narrative); audience was everyone- wanted to appeal to everyone with pan-indian symbols 6 (05mm Q P The Decent of the Ganges from Mamallapuram: 650; Hindu: paid by Mamalla to show rife n a his greatness as ruler; he brings the water to the fill the Ganges; audience is everyone to A“, 5 {00”}. see his greatness; life-Slze; water symbolism important to Hindus; aesthetic shows the ‘ importance of the hardships that one endures for a gifi from Shiva; false aesthetic warns people to be careful not to believe everyone who appears to be end' 11’ng for gift; Shiva Nataraja: Hindu: 11‘h century; South Indian Dynasty; fear no: gesture to devotee; gods manifest themselves in multiple forms to benefit the worshipper; more approachable in the humans form because easy to relate and pray to form; Emerald Buddha: Northern India; 15th century; for all to see that th 3 owner is the one who is in power of secular and religious empires; made by sage; Paintings from Akbarnama: 16th century; first 17 years of Akbar’s reign; ...
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ART HIS 56A Fall - 2005 Final Study Guide - Art History...

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