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Unformatted text preview: bout reproductive fitness. UK
France (speculative) 30
160,000 – 200,000 years Fertility
vs. Age 1725 1800 1900 1990 Modified from Gluckman et al (2009) www.cairn.info/revue-populationenglish-2005-5-page-505.htm 2 things that make humans stand out from other animal (Primates) Humans Are Bipedal and Have Large Brains elephant have smaller brain relative to their body proportion Gluckman et al (2009), Figs 5.10c, 7.8 • Evolution results in compromises
• (Bipedalism → narrow pelvis) vs. (newborn survival → large head)
• Babies are altricial; they need extended parental care at least need to be 8
downside to bipedal: back pain-we have curvature in our spine.
bipedalism require narrow pelvis. Hind limbs need to be narrow. This mean
birth canal is small=lots of pain during childbirth. years old before can be
independent Human Body is Full of “Design” Flaws LIGHT Inside-Out Retina childbirth is one flaw Crossing of Trachea & Esophagus flap Nesse & Williams (1994)
(epiglottis) Silverthorn, Ch 10 Why the Appendix? Silverthorn, Ch 21 Can’t Synthesize Vitamin C
(frugivorous) Shamsa Rashid Pho...
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This document was uploaded on 03/09/2014 for the course EXSC 301 at USC.
- Spring '09