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2-Evol Perspectives Figs-Complete BW

1 how do you test this hypothesis do in vitro culture

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Unformatted text preview: cteria)/selectively nourish beneficial bacteria. 1. how do you test this hypothesis: do in vitro culture bacteria to test if oligosaccharides nourish more efficiently beneficial than pathogens. beneficial bacteria use this oligo very efficiently (can only live on this oligasaccharides). oligosa can actually inhibit growth of harmful bacteria (this bacteria are indigestible) 2. what else do you need to know: since these bacterias live in colon of small intestine, you have to test whether these oligo actually make it to the colon. Yes, they do! 3. what else need to know: what do E. coli and pathogens need to do to infect? do studies to show that oligo inhibit pathogen growth?-yes: what did they first have to do to cause infection? they have to breach the epithelium by attaching to epithelium. these oligosaccharides prevent attaching of pathogens. reduce infection of pathogens (block binding, these oligosaccharides mimic binding site on intestinal epithelial cells (similar structure, saturate receptors on bacteria that would have bind to receptor on epithelial cells), (what problem this oligo solve? need to show breast-baby do better by measuring their performance against formula-baby) 4. would adding the human oligo in small amount to formula would be beneficial? Yes, it's beneficial. these oligo foster establishment of beneficial bacteria. note: cow milk don't have much human oligosaccharides. not that good for adding to formula. 5. if you give mice pathogen, get sick. if give mice pathogens and oligosaccharides, they don't get sick. the pathogens just show up in their stool 6. grand significant: are there other things that can make you sick? yes: parasites, protozoa (amoeba), viruses that cause stomach flu. significance: in order to infect, they bind to membrane receptor. oligo prevent binding. 7. oligo found in urine and blood. how did they get there? weren't they in the intestine? intestine absorb stuff across epithelium (get to blood). to get in urine, oligo were filter. the presence of oligo in urine and blood have good effect: oligo prevent attachment...
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