9-Autonomic Nervous System Figs BW

And these reflexes tend to reside in the brainstem or

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Unformatted text preview: ting the ANS again, much of ANS operate by means of reflexes. and these reflexes tend to reside in the brainstem or spinal cord, so the lower level of nervous system. but there are control centers at higher level at brain that control ANS. 1. the highest level of control is hypothalamus. in hypothalamus, there's a number of nuclei that control important bodily function: regulation of body temperature, appetite, drinking, sexual activity, water content of body. often these center control target organs that regulate these things but there are also behavioral changes. for example: activation of hypothalamic nuclei with maintaining water content in body will not only conserve water in the kidney and other organ but also generate a sense of thirst and induce action of drinking. -surprisingly, the number of neurons in these hypothalamic nuclei can be small (a few thousand, but yet control vital function) 2. there other control centers (higher level) that control ANS function are pons and medulla. these brain stem areas control a number of Autonomic control nuclei. they tend to be vital, they contain nuclei that control cardiovascular system, respiratory system. damage to these automatic control centers is very serious and often fatal b/c they disrupt vital functions. Figs. 11-2, 11-3 Pre- and Postganglionic Neurons the basic arrangement of peripheral part of A...
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