Unformatted text preview: ting the ANS
again, much of ANS operate by means of reflexes. and these reflexes tend to reside in the
brainstem or spinal cord, so the lower level of nervous system. but there are control centers at
higher level at brain that control ANS.
1. the highest level of control is hypothalamus. in hypothalamus, there's a number of nuclei that
control important bodily function: regulation of body temperature, appetite, drinking, sexual
activity, water content of body. often these center control target organs that regulate these
things but there are also behavioral changes. for example: activation of hypothalamic nuclei with
maintaining water content in body will not only conserve water in the kidney and other organ but
also generate a sense of thirst and induce action of drinking.
-surprisingly, the number of neurons in these hypothalamic nuclei can be small (a few thousand,
but yet control vital function)
2. there other control centers (higher level) that control ANS function are pons and medulla.
these brain stem areas control a number of Autonomic control nuclei. they tend to be vital, they
contain nuclei that control cardiovascular system, respiratory system. damage to these
automatic control centers is very serious and often fatal b/c they disrupt vital functions. Figs. 11-2, 11-3 Pre- and Postganglionic Neurons
the basic arrangement of peripheral part of A...
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- Spring '09
- heart rate, target organ