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Neither is wholly correct theyre both linear eg you

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Unformatted text preview: non-Bard 1. Neither is wholly correct They’re both linear – e.g., you experience arousal, determine which emotion it is, and then you’re done Emotion is ongoing (secondary appraisal doesn’t end) 2. The basic form of each theory assumes that each emotion is linked to a specific physiological response It would be great if this were true, but it’s not [See Schachter & Singer study on next slides] Slide 16/92 Theories of emotion: Part 2 Schachter & Singer’s two-factor theory of emotion There are two stages to an emotional experience First, a person notices physiological arousal in the body Second, that arousal is construed in a certain way The arousal itself limits possible construals E.g., If my heart rate goes up, I could be angry/scared/excited but not disgusted/calm Through the construal process, people select the specific emotion that they will experience The construal process includes looking for plausible explanations for the arousal (causal attribution) Slide 17/92 Theories of emotion: Part 2 Schachter & Singer’s classic study (1962) Ps told the study is about the effects of vitamins on vision Given a “vitamin injection” Control group: The injection is a placebo Adrenaline-ignorant group: The injection is adrenaline and Ps NOT told to expect any “side effects” Adrenaline-informed group: The injection is adrenaline and Ps ARE told that the injection would give “side effects”, including making their heart pound, face flush, and hands shake (SNS activity) Ps told the “vitamins” takes 20 mins to kick in Led to a waiting room, where they had to wait with another “participant” [The other “participant” was a confederate] The confederate either acted “happy” or “angry” Slide 18/92 Theories of emotion: Part 2 The results Placebo Ps were the baseline for comparison Adrenaline-informed Ps were less emotional than placebo Ps In both the euphoric and angry confederate conditions Why? They attribute their feelings to the “vitamin” shot Adrenaline-ignorant Ps… …who met a happy confederate became very happy …who met an angry confederate become very angry Why? They attribute their feelings to the situation In the adrenaline-ignorant condition, the confederate provides a construal for the Ps’ physiological arousal “This guy took the same thing I did, and now he’s very angry (happy)… these feelings I have must be anger (happiness), too!” Slide 19/92 Theories of emotion: Part 2 Schachter & Singer (1962) The results tell us that construal matters in emotion Physiological arousal is difficult to interpret! The same physiological reaction led to “anger” and “happiness” and “no emotional reaction” (in the adrenaline-informed group) The basic emotion process is: Stimulus ANS activity Construal Emotion This study highlights the idea of misattribution of arousal Misattribution of arousal: When the source of physiological arousal is attributed to the incorrect cause In Schachter & Singer’s study, adrenaline caused the arousal, but uninformed Ps don’t know that, and subsequently attribute their arousal to the situation Slide 20/92 Misattribution of arousal The bridge study (Dutton & Aron,1974) A female experimenter approached men who were crossing (1) a dangerous bridge, or (2) a safe bridge The men filled out a survey… at the end, the experim...
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