For most people rolls 2000 being touched relieves

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Unformatted text preview: cting with others, touch is frequently used to moderate the emotions of the other person Being touched by another person is an inherently positive experience for most people (Rolls, 2000) Being touched relieves stress (Francis & Meaney, 1999) Married women about to receive an electric shock were less stressed and showed decreased threat activity when holding the hand of their spouse (but not a stranger) Being touched encourages reciprocity Pro basketball teams that touch more (high five, fist bump, back slaps) cooperate better and play better (Kraus et al., 2010) Slide 48/92 Emotions in friendships and relationships Are people accurate at conveying emotion via touch? Hertenstein et al. (2006) Two Ps sat at a table. A black curtain was in front of each P. The Ps put their hands through the curtains into a common area One P was instructed to convey a particular emotion by touching the other P’s forearm for 1 second The other P (the one being touched) had to identify which emotion was being conveyed by selecting it from a list Slide 49/92 Emotions in friendships and relationships Slide 50/92 Behavioral mimicry Behavioral mimicry – temporarily adopting the same behaviors as someone you are interacting with E.g., yawning This happens naturally and automatically (unconsciously) Slide 51/92 Behavioral mimicry Behavioral mimicry can occur automatically because of mirror neurons MN fire both when you do an action and when you observe someone else do the same action Basically, if their activation is strong enough and if you don’t inhibit their activation, they will lead you to do the same action This occurs with simple actions (yawning) and emotions Mimicry is one way people come to understand what other people feel (“simulation theory”) Slide 52/92 Behavioral mimicry Mimicry is very subtle and occurs frequently People touch their faces (or shake their feet) more when they see others touch their own faces (or shake their feet) People adopt the postures of those around them People adopt the postures of sculptures around them Laughing circles (“emotional contagion”) Slide 53/92 Behavioral mimicry Mimicry promotes liking (Valdesolo & DeSteno, 2011) A participant and confederate sat across from each other Each wore headphones and was asked to tap their fingers on the table in sync with the beat For some pairs, the P & C listened to the same song, so their taps matched up. For other pairs, the P & C listened to different songs, so their taps didn’t match up At the end of the study, Ps whose taps mimicked the C… Felt more similar to the C Expressed more compassion for the C Were more likely to help the C complete a task later in the study Slide 54/92 Behavioral mimicry Mimicry outcomes People like others more if they mimic them (and vice-versa) People become oriented toward positive social interactions and helping other people if they have recently been mimicked When people feel included, they want to behave prosocially Practical applications Mimic new acquaintances, employers in an interview, potential dates at a bar, and anyone else who you want to like you Slide 55/92 Oxytocin and trust Oxytocin is a neuropeptide involved in pair-bonding Oxytocin is released during sex, during birth, during breastfeeding, and when displaying love In non-human animals, oxytocin injections increase preference for monogamous relationships over promiscuity If you block the hormone, monogamous voles become more promiscuous and...
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