Unformatted text preview: their current affect (which was influenced by the weather)
to form their response to the complex question about life satisfaction BUT, half of participants were asked “How’s the weather down
there” before receiving the life satisfaction question
The effect completely went away for these subjects!
Why? They attributed their current negative affect to the weather, and
adjusted for this when answering the other survey questions
Slide 71/92 Affect-as-information Slide 72/92 Affect-as-information
Affect is used as a cue for all sorts of judgments
People in a bad mood rate consumer products, politicians, and
economic policies more negatively
Recalling an angry event from the past leads people to blame
others for their current (unrelated) problems and also to
believe that unfair things will happen to them in the future
When individuals are scared (e.g., from watching a scary movie
clip), they perceive their current environment to be more risky
After 9/11. people were more afraid of unrelated risks, such as the
possibility of a flu epidemic Slide 73/92 Affect-as-information
A model of when affect is used as information
Albarracin & Kumkale (2003) Slide 74/92 Emotions and processing style
The effects of positive emotion
People become more likely to use top-down strategies
Top-down strategies rely on schema (heuristics, stereotypes) The effects of negative emotion
People become more likely to use bottom-up strategies
People spend more attention/effort on tasks and notice details
Making people sad makes them less likely to stereotype others
(Bodenhausen, Sheppard, & Kramer, 1994) Slide 75/92 Emotions and processing style
Positive emotions can also have good effects
Isen (1987) – positive emotion leads to creativity!
Induced positive moods & had Ps categorize objects
Positive mood led to inclusive, creative results
“List types of clothing” “cane”, “purse”
“List words associated with carpet” “fresh”, “texture” Creativity is often about seeing new connections (i.e.,
categorizing objects in a very inclusive way)
Sort of like “over-extending” a schema Slide 76/92 Emotions and processing style
Why do positive emotions lead to top-down thinking?
Explanation 1 – positive-mood-maintenance
When you’re in a positive mood, you don’t want to spend a lot
of effort thinking about the details – this isn’t pleasant!
So to maintain a positive mood, already-happy people invest
minimal cognitive resources into tasks (and use heuristics) Explanation 2 – fluency
When you feel good, you trust your gut reaction more
Positive emotion increases feelings of fluency Slide 77/92 Emotions and moral judgment
Mark and Julie are brother and sister. They are traveling
together in France on a summer vacation from college.
One night they are staying alone in a cabin near the
beach. They decide that it would be interesting and fun if
they tried making love. At the very least it would be a
new experience for each of them. Julie was already taking
birth control pills, but Mark uses a condom, too, just to
be safe. They b...
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This document was uploaded on 03/09/2014 for the course PSYC 201 at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.
- Spring '08