Secondary emotions primary emotions basic emotions

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Unformatted text preview: t, which promotes exploration and affiliation This is a very adaptive combo! Slide 31/92 Universality vs. specificity of emotion Primary vs. secondary emotions Primary emotions – basic emotions that can be combined More likely to be cross-culturally valid Secondary emotions – complex blends of more basic emotions Can be culture-specific and highly nuanced Emotions without a direct English translation Slide 32/92 The universality of facial expression Slide 33/92 The universality of facial expression Ekman’s 6 universal emotions Slide 34/92 The universality of facial expression Slide 35/92 The universality of facial expression Slide 36/92 The universality of facial expression Slide 37/92 The universality of facial expression Slide 38/92 The universality of facial expression Some nice evidence for the claim that (primary) emotional expressions are universal and “hard-wired” Congenital blindness & facial expressions Blind and sighted athletes Slide 39/92 Cultural specificity of emotion Emotional accents – unique ways that individuals from different cultures express the same emotion E.g., In India, tongue biting signifies embarrassment Emotional accents are learned You will only pick them up if you’ve been exposed to them Slide 40/92 Cultural specificity of emotion Slide 41/92 Cultural specificity of emotion Focal emotions – emotions that are especially common within a particular culture Shame/guilt are similar concepts, but shame is public whereas guilt is private Collectivist cultures emphasize shame Individualist cultures emphasize guilt Hypercognize – to represent a particular emotional concept with many, many words and concepts E.g., In Chinese, there are 113 terms for experiencing shame and embarrassment (Li et al., 2004) More terms = the concept is probably of high importance Slide 42/92 Cultural specificity of emotion Display rules – culturally-specific rules that govern how, when, and to whom you express emotions North Americans culturally value positive affect (PA) They feel like they should experience frequent PA They want others to experience frequent PA Even within PA, North Americans value high-intensity PA, whereas East Asians value low-intensity PA Excitement vs. calmness Slide 43/92 Emotion perception research applied Robots that show emotion To improve human-robot interactions, robots are being designed to display identifiable human emotions and to mimic the emotions of those around them For robots to display emotion in an effective manner, they must be programmed to change their facial structures in highly specific ways – e.g., a smile without activity around the eyes would ultimately be perceived as a fake smile and an inauthentic display of emotion. Slide 44/92 Universality vs. specificity: TYK If an emotion us “universal” that means… A. It is experienced in the same way in all cultures B. It is expressed in the same way in all cultures C. All of the above D. None of the above Slide 45/92 Universality vs. specificity of emotions: Summary Emotions are universal Evolutionary theory of emotions Ekman’s 6 basic emotions can be easily identified across culture “True” emotional expressions use the same facial muscles across cultures Blind individuals display the same emotional expressions Emotions have a culture-specific component Emotional accents Focal emotions Display rules Slide 46/92 Emotions and social relationships Slide 47/92 Emotions in friendships and relationships When intera...
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This document was uploaded on 03/09/2014 for the course PSYC 201 at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.

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