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Unformatted text preview: substance Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of substance use The substance use is continued despite problems Does nicotine use through smoking meet Does nicotine use through smoking meet diagnostic criteria for addiction? A strong desire to take the drug. Difficulty in controlling use. Continued use despite harmful effects
Tolerance – need larger dose – 2/4 cigarettes initially but need 20/40 cigarettes after long term smoking
Substance taken in larger amounts or longer than intended
A higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations
A great deal of time is spent in obtaining, using or recovering from effects of substance Ranking of nicotine in relation to Ranking of nicotine in relation to other drugs in terms of addiction
Dependence among users Difficulty achieving abstinence Tolerance Physical withdrawal severity Deaths Importance in user's daily life Prevalence nicotine>heroin>cocaine>alcohol>caffeine (alcohol=cocaine=heroin=nicotine)>caffeine (alcohol=heroin=nicotine)>cocaine>caffeine alcohol>heroin>nicotine>cocaine>caffeine nicotine>alcohol>(cocaine=heroin)>caffeine (alcohol=cocaine=heroin=nicotine)>caffeine caffeine>nicotine>alcohol>(cocaine=heroin) Health Effects of Smoking
Health Effects of Smoking Heart disease Lung disease – COPD, asthma Cancer Lung, ENT, pancreas Cervix, colorectal Skin (squamous cell) Vascular disease impotence Stroke Cataracts Gum disease Dementia Early menopause Osteoporosis
Multiple sclerosis What are the health consequences of What are the health consequences of smoking? (cont.) What causes the health consequences of smoking? constricts blood vessels
increases heart rate and blood pressure
increases cardiac output hardens the arteries (arteriosclerosis)
disrupts the ability of the cilia to clear lungs Healthy lung Smoker’s lung Why Do People Smoke?
Why Do People Smoke? Social Contagion Process in Smoking 70% of all cigarettes smoked by adolescents are smoked in the presence of a peer Smoking may be an attempt to reduce negative mood
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This document was uploaded on 03/10/2014 for the course PSY 383 at University of Arizona- Tucson.
- Summer '14
- Health Psychology