Unformatted text preview: it 3rd leading cause of death. Cirrhosis of the liver
Cirrhosis of the liver Alcoholism and Problem Alcoholism and Problem Drinking Alcoholic Physical addiction to alcohol Withdrawal symptoms when abstaining from alcohol High tolerance for alcohol Little ability to control drinking
Problem drinkers: may not have symptoms listed above, but do have substantial social, medical or psychological problems resulting from alcohol. Alcoholism and Problem Drinking: Alcoholism and Problem Drinking: Origins Drinking occurs as an effort to buffer the impact of stress.
Drink to enhance positive emotions Drink to reduce negative emotions Alcoholism is tied to the drinker’s social and cultural environment. Window of vulnerability: ages 12 to 21 Window of vulnerability: late middle age Etiological Considerations: Alcoholism
But, first, what does alcohol do?
• Alcohol consumption affects virtually every organ system in the body.
• Initial effect of stimulation comes from depression of inhibitory centers of brain.
• Additional effects induce depression of other brain areas leading to impairment of motor coordination, slowing of reaction time, confusion, lowered judgmental ability, and impaired vision and hearing. Etiological Considerations: Alcoholism Genetics: Twin Studies
• Males: MZ = 56% vs. DZ = 33%
• Females: MZ = 30% vs. DZ = 17%
Subtypes of alcoholism:
• TYPE 1: Later onset and absence of antisocial personality; both men and women
• TYPE 2: Early onset and presence of antisocial personality; possibly “male limited?” Alcoholism and Problem Alcoholism and Problem Drinking: Treatment Programs SelfMonitoring: Person begins to understand situations that give rise to drinking
Contingency contracting: Person agrees to a costly outcome (financial or psychological) in the event of failure
Motivational enhancement: Keeping the client motivated with individualized feedback about his/her efforts. Treatment Programs: AA
Treatment Programs: AA Philosophy The best person to reach an alcoholic is a recovered alcoholic Immersion: Attend 90 meetings in 90 days Recovery depends on staying sober
Members provide social reinforcement for one another's abstinence
Alcoholism: A disease that can be managed, not never cured. Treatment Programs: Relapse Prevention
Treatment Programs: Relapse Prevention 26% of alcoholics remain improved one year after treatment
Helpful for problem drinkers to know
An occasional relapse is normal Relapse doesn’t signify failure Learning “drinkrefusal skills” to use in social situations is an important aspect of treatment The Drinking College Student
The Drinking College Student Most U.S. college students drink alcohol
Successful interventions: Encourage students to gain selfcontrol over drinking, rather than attempting to eliminate it. Selfmonitoring often reduces drinking Placebo drinking: consuming nonalcoholic beverages while others are drinking
Lifestyle rebalancing to encourage positive health changes. Can Recovered Alcoholics Drink Can Recovered Alcoholics Drink Again? Alcoholics Anonymous Philosophy: An alcoholic is an alcoholic for life Research suggests that this is true in most cases Drinking in moderation seems possible
For young, employed problem drinkers Who have not been drinking for long Who live in supportive environments Assignments for This Lecture
Assignments for This Lecture Quiz 8 Focus on lecture over book Chapter 8...
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- Summer '14
- Health Psychology, physical dependence