Windowofvulnerabilityages12to21

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Unformatted text preview: it 3rd leading cause of death. Cirrhosis of the liver Cirrhosis of the liver Alcoholism and Problem Alcoholism and Problem Drinking Alcoholic Physical addiction to alcohol Withdrawal symptoms when abstaining from alcohol High tolerance for alcohol Little ability to control drinking Problem drinkers: may not have symptoms listed above, but do have substantial social, medical or psychological problems resulting from alcohol. Alcoholism and Problem Drinking: Alcoholism and Problem Drinking: Origins Drinking occurs as an effort to buffer the impact of stress. Drink to enhance positive emotions Drink to reduce negative emotions Alcoholism is tied to the drinker’s social and cultural environment. Window of vulnerability: ages 12 to 21 Window of vulnerability: late middle age Etiological Considerations: Alcoholism But, first, what does alcohol do? • Alcohol consumption affects virtually every organ system in the body. • Initial effect of stimulation comes from depression of inhibitory centers of brain. • Additional effects induce depression of other brain areas leading to impairment of motor coordination, slowing of reaction time, confusion, lowered judgmental ability, and impaired vision and hearing. Etiological Considerations: Alcoholism Genetics: Twin Studies • Males: MZ = 56% vs. DZ = 33% • Females: MZ = 30% vs. DZ = 17% Subtypes of alcoholism: • TYPE 1: Later onset and absence of antisocial personality; both men and women • TYPE 2: Early onset and presence of antisocial personality; possibly “male limited?” Alcoholism and Problem Alcoholism and Problem Drinking: Treatment Programs Self­Monitoring: Person begins to understand situations that give rise to drinking Contingency contracting: Person agrees to a costly outcome (financial or psychological) in the event of failure Motivational enhancement: Keeping the client motivated with individualized feedback about his/her efforts. Treatment Programs: AA Treatment Programs: AA Philosophy The best person to reach an alcoholic is a recovered alcoholic Immersion: Attend 90 meetings in 90 days Recovery depends on staying sober Members provide social reinforcement for one another's abstinence Alcoholism: A disease that can be managed, not never cured. Treatment Programs: Relapse Prevention Treatment Programs: Relapse Prevention 26% of alcoholics remain improved one year after treatment Helpful for problem drinkers to know An occasional relapse is normal Relapse doesn’t signify failure Learning “drink­refusal skills” to use in social situations is an important aspect of treatment The Drinking College Student The Drinking College Student Most U.S. college students drink alcohol Successful interventions: Encourage students to gain self­control over drinking, rather than attempting to eliminate it. Self­monitoring often reduces drinking Placebo drinking: consuming nonalcoholic beverages while others are drinking Lifestyle rebalancing to encourage positive health changes. Can Recovered Alcoholics Drink Can Recovered Alcoholics Drink Again? Alcoholics Anonymous Philosophy: An alcoholic is an alcoholic for life Research suggests that this is true in most cases Drinking in moderation seems possible For young, employed problem drinkers Who have not been drinking for long Who live in supportive environments Assignments for This Lecture Assignments for This Lecture Quiz 8 Focus on lecture over book Chapter 8...
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